The innate and adaptive immune responses discussed thus far comprise the systemic immune system (affecting the whole body), which is distinct from the mucosal immune system. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), illustrated in Figure 1, is a collection of lymphatic tissue that combines with epithelial tissue lining the mucosa throughout the body.
Chameleon: example of a lacertile reptile What they are - biological definition Lacertils are scaled reptiles (order Squamata), which belong to the suborder Sauria. They are mainly found in Asia, Africa and America. There are about 300 known species of lacertils. Summary of main features: - They live mainly in woodland and forest regions.
Bacteria: Various Forms of Reproduction Introduction Bacteria reproduce in two ways: - Asexually, in a process called bipartition or cisiparity. - Sexually, in processes that are called conjugation, transduction and transformation. Main Features In bipartition or cissiparity, a bacterium divides into two other bacteria.
Image of a nerve cell (enlarged under a microscope) What it is The nerve is an anatomical structure formed by multiple neuronal axons and dendrites, responsible for the transmission of the electrical nerve impulse. Key features Simply put, we can understand that each nerve is surrounded by a connective tissue tube (called epineurium) and that it has several nerve fascicles that are surrounded by another layer of connective tissue (perineurium) that is lined with a third layer. connective tissue called endoneurium.
Cervical Vertebrae: Mobility and Head Movement Introduction The spine is part of the axial skeleton, and is made up of 33 bones: the vertebrae. It can be said that there are five main regions of the spine: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal. What They Are Vertebrae are bony structures, and they have a common structural plane, with very few variations.
Human Brain: The Computer of Our Body Introduction Within the human brain the most varied situations occur, such as: perception, imagination, thoughts, judgments, decisions, etc. Knowing the Human Brain The surface of the brain - the cerebral cortex - is made up of six layers of neurons (nervous system cells responsible for conducting the nerve impulse).
Cranial Nerves: Sensory and Motor Functions What They Are The cranial nerves make up the peripheral nervous system of humans. In total there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that we find in humans. They have various functions in our nervous system and emerge from the nose, eyes, brainstem and other parts of the skull.
Human skin: composed of three layers What it is The skin and its attachments (nails, hair and glands) are part of the integumentary system. It is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The layers of the skin The epidermis is the outer part and the only one that is in contact with the environment. For this reason, it also has the important function of protecting the body against damage caused by external agents.
Oleander: one of the most poisonous plants in the world Curiosities about plants: - The largest tree species in the world is the redwood. This giant is found in the United States and can reach up to 110 meters in height. - The smallest tree in the world is the dwarf willow (salix herbaceous). With an average height of 4 to 5 cm, this small tree is widely found in cold regions of the northern hemisphere.
Bronchi: conducts air to the lungs What it is In humans, as in mammals, the bronchi are cartilage tubes whose function is to bring air into the lungs. Therefore we can say that the bronchi are the entrances of the lungs. At its bottom, the trachea divides into two bronchi (right and left).
Bone Growth: Several Factors Influence What It Is and How It Occurs There are important factors that directly influence bone growth, such as: genetic factor, nutritional factors, physical factor, and hormonal factors. In the genetic factor, it is the genetic code - DNA - that determines what will be the maximum height of each individual.
Intestine: Nutrient and Water Absorption Introduction The intestine is part of the digestive system and it is through it that nutrient and water absorbs. Knowing the gut (main characteristics) It is divided into two parts: thin and thick. In the first is where the absorption of the vast majority of nutrients occurs.
Thyroid: one of the main endocrine glands in the human body Introduction (what they are) Endocrine glands are glands and tissues in the human body responsible for hormone production. These are chemicals responsible for regulating various functions of the human body. Main endocrine glands of the human body: - Pituitary gland - Pineal gland - Thymus - Thyroid gland - Adrenal gland - Testicle (in men) - Ovary (in women) - Pancreas Main functions - Regulate the activities of the human body through the hormones carried by the blood to the various organs.
Blood: Functions of the utmost importance to the organism Below are the main components of blood and their functions: HEMACIES Functions: - Perform cellular respiration. - Carry oxygen to the various tissues of the body. - Transport part of the carbon dioxide through hemoglobin (one of the main components of red blood cells).
Bibliographic indication for the study of the Human Body Book indication about the human body (bibliography) Functional and topographic anatomy of the human body Author: Lütjendrecoll, Elke Publisher: Manole The Human Body Author: Smith, Miranda Publisher: Girassol Human Anatomy + Body Atlas Human Author: Martini, Frenderich H.
Sweat produced by sweat glands What are also known as sweat glands, are epithelial cells present in the skin of mammals, including humans. Function of sweat glands These glands have the important function of secreting sweat, enabling the regulation of body temperature and the elimination of toxic substances to the body.
Human Abdomen: Muscles in the Spotlight What It Is and Its Main Functions The abdomen is the front of the trunk of the trunk of animals. In vertebrates it is formed by the stomach, excretory apparatus, intestine and reproductive organs. The abdomen of humans has, on the outside, a set of muscles, which serve to protect the internal organs against mechanical shock.
Prostate Localization: Male Reproductive System Organ What It Is (Summary) and Localization The prostate gland is located near the male urethra. It is present only in men and has the function of producing a liquid that mixes with the sperm produced in the testes and also with another liquid that comes from the seminal vesicles, to then form semen.
Muscular System: Vital Functions for the Human Body Importance The muscular system is of utmost importance for the functioning of the human body. We use the body muscles constantly voluntarily (when lifting an object, for example) and involuntarily (heartbeat and peristaltic movements).
Male Reproductive System: Reproductive Organs Composition (Organs) The male reproductive system consists of the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate and penis. Testicles In the testicles, sperm production occurs as well as the production of testosterone (male sex hormone).
Human Diaphragm: Important Chest Muscle What It Is The diaphragm is an extensive skeletal striated muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity. It is very important in the breathing process of humans. The diaphragm is found in all mammals and also in some bird species.