Please help ID this possible fish skull

Please help ID this possible fish skull

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Found on the shoreline of a tributary of the upper part of the Chesapeake bay in Maryland:

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How to Preserve a Skull

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A cleaned animal skull can make a beautiful and unique ornament for a wide range of art products. They can also teach us a lot about the animals themselves. Age, habits, even how they died can be determined through the skulls and bones. An animal skull must be totally clean prior to preservation and there are several methods that can be used. Here are the steps to follow in order to learn how to clean and preserve a skull.

Please help ID this possible fish skull - Biology

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    Welcome to Ask A Biologist. This site has a large collection of biology learning materials that includes stories, games, activities, videos, and a podcast.

    Development of the bony skull in common sole: brief survey of morpho-functional aspects of ossification sequence

    The postembryonic development of the bony cephalic skeleton in the common sole Solea solea, observed from hatching to the juvenile stage or postmetamorphic larva, appears to follow a similar chronological order to that observed in other Pleuronectiformes and Perciformes and the sequence in bone formation is a response to functional demands. At hatching, S. solea has no bony structure. On day 4, only the outlines of maxillaries and opercular bones are visible. On day 6, a thin parasphenoid appears between the orbits and isolates the braincase from the buccal cavity making food ingestion possible without any impact on the brain. On day 8, the dentaries form and two small preopercular bones appear on each side of the head. On day 9, at weaning from the yolk sac, branchial arches support the gill filaments (used for respiration and trapping phytoplankton which pass through the open mouth). On day 10, the premaxillaries develop in front of the maxillaries. The superimposing of the maxillaries and the premaxillaries is a typical feature of species possessing an acanthopterygian protractile mouth at the adult stage. On day 12, the frontals develop above the orbits and the set of opercular bones is complete. On day 18, the migration of the left eye begins. On day 20, the left eye has moved to the median crest of the head. On day 23, both eyes are located on the same side. On day 26, the braincase is formed by a basioccipital, exoccipitals, pterotics, sphenotics and a supraoccipital. On day 50, new structures have appeared, others have developed and have undergone an extensive remodeling due to metamorphosis.

    The Great Lakes region is home to an impressive variety of fish, numbering more than 160 separate species. It is helpful to understand:

    • A species consists of individuals that share the same gene pool.
    • These species belong to 28 major fish families.
    • A family is a taxonomic group that includes similar species.

    Many in the Great Lakes are familiar with fish in the sunfish and bass family, cold-water species in the salmon and trout family, or some of the 62 species that make up the minnow family.

    Ancient fish such as lake sturgeon and longnose gar also inhabit waters of the Great Lakes region and possess unique attributes that have allowed them to survive for millions of years. With the exception of some primitive species, most fish have common characteristics that include gills, scales, fins and bony skeletons. Some characteristics that differentiate fish include the shape of their heads, where their mouths are located, fin type and location, and average adult size.

    Color markings, such as vertical stripes or fin spots, may also help differentiate fish when used in combination with other factors including geographic range. Distinguishing characteristics can provide clues about where a species typically lives and what it eats.

    For example, fish in the sturgeon and sucker families have downward-oriented mouths (sometimes called ventral) that enable them to find food along a lake or stream bottom. Other traits such as fin shape and location can provide clues about whether a fish is generally a fast swimmer or a slow swimmer.

    To correctly identify fish and classify newly discovered species, fisheries scientists use a dichotomous key based on distinguishing characteristics. A dichotomous key is a classification tool used to sort, organize and identify a collection of objects or living organisms. The key is made up of a series of questions with two choices. Each choice leads to another question. The key can appear in narrative form (as numbered questions), graphically (resembling a flow chart), or a combination of graphics and narrative.

    By making choices and progressing logically through the key, users follow a path that ends with the correct identification of the organism. Dichotomous keys vary in their degree of specificity. In this lesson, a simplified key has been created that distinguishes 10 Great Lakes fish families. By using their knowledge of distinguishing characteristics, students use illustrations of fish to work through the key and make identifications.


    Endochondral ossification is the formation of long bones and other bones. This requires a hyaline cartilage precursor. There are two centers of ossification for endochondral ossification.

    In long bones, bone tissue first appears in the diaphysis (middle of shaft). Chondrocytes multiply and form trebeculae. Cartilage is progressively eroded and replaced by hardened bone, extending towards the epiphysis. A perichondrium layer surrounding the cartilage forms the periosteum, which generates sperm cells that then go on to make a collar that encircles the outside of the bone and remodels the medullary cavity on the inside.

    The nutrient artery enters via the nutrient foramen from a small opening in the diaphysis. It invades the primary center of ossification, bringing osteogenic cells (osteoblasts on the outside, osteoclasts on the inside.) The canal of the nutrient foramen is directed away from more active end of bone when one end grows more than the other. When bone grows at same rate at both ends, the nutrient artery is perpendicular to the bone.

    Most other bones (e.g. vertebrae) also have primary ossification centers, and bone is laid down in a similar manner.

    The secondary centers generally appear at the epiphysis. Secondary ossification mostly occurs after birth (except for distal femur and proximal tibia which occurs during 9th month of fetal development). The epiphyseal arteries and osteogenic cells invade the epiphysis, depositing osteoclasts and osteoblasts which erode the cartilage and build bone, respectively. This occurs at both ends of long bones but only one end of digits and ribs.

    Discovery Of Ancient Massacre Suggests War Predated Settlements

    The position of the hands of this skeleton, one of several excavated at Nataruk, suggests her wrists may have been bound. This woman, found reclining on her left elbow, with fractures on the knees and possibly the left foot, was found surrounded by fish. Marta Mirazon Lahr/Fabio Lahr/Cambridge University hide caption

    The position of the hands of this skeleton, one of several excavated at Nataruk, suggests her wrists may have been bound. This woman, found reclining on her left elbow, with fractures on the knees and possibly the left foot, was found surrounded by fish.

    Marta Mirazon Lahr/Fabio Lahr/Cambridge University

    A pregnant woman with her hands and feet bound. A man with an obsidian blade embedded in his skull. Men and women with arrow wounds to the head and neck.

    That's the grisly scene archaeologists describe at Nataruk, in modern-day Kenya, where they say they've uncovered unique evidence of violence in prehistoric, nomadic hunter-gatherer communities.

    The massacre they've uncovered is striking, they say, because it pushes back against a theory that warfare didn't become a feature of human culture until communities settled down.

    Archaeologists from Cambridge University excavated the remains of 27 people, including at least eight women and six children, in a region that was once the edge of a lagoon, near modern-day Lake Turkana. The remains included 12 skeletons that were fairly complete, "preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon," the researchers write in Nature this week.

    They all appeared to have died at the same time, 10,000 years ago or so. The researchers focused on the 12 skeletons — 10 showed evidence of fatal injuries, including sharp-force and blunt-force trauma, and several had blades or projectiles embedded in them.

    This skeleton was that of a man, found lying prone in the lagoon's sediments. The skull has multiple lesions on the front and on the left side, consistent with wounds from a blunt implement, such as a club. Marta Mirazon Lahr/Fabio Lahr/Cambridge University hide caption

    This skeleton was that of a man, found lying prone in the lagoon's sediments. The skull has multiple lesions on the front and on the left side, consistent with wounds from a blunt implement, such as a club.

    Marta Mirazon Lahr/Fabio Lahr/Cambridge University

    Two of the skeletons — including a woman who either was in the late stages of pregnancy or was holding a newborn baby — showed no evidence of trauma, but their hands were in a position suggesting they might have been bound.

    The bodies did not appear to have been carefully or ritually buried.

    The site of the massacre suggests something more than an interpersonal conflict, the researchers say. There's plenty of evidence for violence between nomadic individuals, but prehistoric violence between two or more large groups is harder to identify.

    As a result, "the origins of war are controversial," the researchers write. Were humans waging war as nomadic hunter-gatherers, or did communities only engage in warfare once they'd established agriculture and permanent settlements?

    The oldest known evidence of warfare — the Jebel Sahaba graveyard, in modern-day northern Sudan — is estimated to date to around 13,000 years ago. It contains the remains of bodies killed in violent skirmishes, but the use of the cemetery suggests the community was fairly settled.

    The bodies in Nataruk, in contrast, appeared to be part of a nomadic band of hunter-gatherers.


    In Southeast Turkey, A Long History Of Bloodshed And Worship

    The archaeologists suggest two interpretations of their find. One was that the lakeshore area of West Turkana was so fertile and productive 10,000 years ago that it sustained a high population of hunter-gatherers, who were less nomadic and more materially wealthy than many such foraging groups. That would suggest warfare could still be a hallmark of fairly settled communities, but that hunter-gatherer communities could be more sedentary and populous than previously understood.

    Alternately, they say, the discovery could indicate that warfare was a part of life for nomadic hunter-gatherers — that violent conflict between such groups might have been "ephemeral, but perhaps not unusual."

    In that case, war wouldn't be a side effect of human settlement, but potentially a far older facet of human culture.

    Study co-author Robert Foley said that doesn't have to be a wholly grim idea.

    "I've no doubt it is in our biology to be aggressive and lethal, just as it is to be deeply caring and loving," he said in a University of Cambridge statement. "A lot of what we understand about human evolutionary biology suggests these are two sides of the same coin."

    Journal of Fish Biology

    The Journal of Fish Biology is a leading international, peer-review journal for scientists engaged in all aspects of fish biology. Ranked amongst the 100 most influential journals of Biology & Medicine over the last 100 years by the Special Libraries Association - Biomedical and Life Sciences Division (SLA-DBIO ), the journal encompasses all aquatic ecosystems: marine, estuarine and fresh water.

    Featured on Journal of Fish Biology
    FSBI Special Issue Announcement

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has emerged as a powerful and widely used tool for understanding the physiology, ecology, evolution, conservation, and management of fishes. This special issue will provide a global perspective, synthesizing recent advances in the application of SIA to fish biology. Click here for full details.

    Open for article submission: February 1 st 2021

    Deadline for article submissions: February 1 st 2022

    Latest Special Issue:
    A symposium on the topical theme “Advances in eDNA‐Based Approaches to Fish Ecology and Management” was held at the University of Hull, UK in September 2019 attracting more than 121 delegates from 27 countries. The papers in this Special Issue are a testament to the vibrant discussion during the conference and the momentum of this rapidly evolving field.

    Hinge Joints

    In hinge joints, the slightly rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly hollow end of the other bone. In this way, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, like the hinge of a door. The elbow is an example of a hinge joint. The knee is sometimes classified as a modified hinge joint (Figure 19.28).

    Figure 19.28.
    The elbow joint, where the radius articulates with the humerus, is an example of a hinge joint. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

    How Flying Fish Took Flight? Fossils May Tell Us

    An extinct flying fish may shed light on how gliding evolved in such animals, researchers say.

    Modern flying fish are famous for leaping from the water to glide in the air using long, winglike fins, presumably to escape aquatic predators. Much remains unknown about how modern flying fish developed their gliding abilities, since there is little in the way of missing-link fossils to illuminate how these fish evolved flight.

    However, modern flying fish, known as exocoetids, were not the only fish to evolve gliding. Extinct flying fish known as thoracopterids evolved bodies remarkably similar to exocoetids more than 200 million years ago, during the Triassic period. [Photos: The Freakiest-Looking Fish]

    Now, a newfound thoracopterid species is casting light on how these extinct flying fish developed the ability to glide, and could yield insights into how modern flying fish evolved flight as well.

    The new fish is named Wushaichthys exquisitus, which means "exquisite fish from Wusha" in Greek and Latin. (Wusha is the town in the southern Chinese province of Guizhou where the fossils were found.)

    The scientists discovered six well-preserved specimens of Wushaichthys in 2010. The fossils are 235 million to 242 million years old, back when the area they dwelled in was part of the hot uppermost waters of the ancient Palaeotethys Ocean. During this period, Wushaichthys lived alongside shrimp, fish, mollusks and marine reptiles such as dolphin-shaped ichthyosaurs.

    The extinct fish was relatively small, measuring up to about 2 inches (5.2 centimeters) long. The researchers suggest it may have eaten plankton, and been prey for marine reptiles and larger carnivorous fishes.

    "When the fish fossils were collected in the fieldwork, we had no idea what kind of fish this was," said lead study author Guang-Hui Xu, a vertebrate paleontologist at China's Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing. "After painstaking specimen preparation in the lab by myself, taking about three months, I recognized that it was, unexpectedly, related to the ancestor of the thoracopterid flying fishes."

    Wushaichthys is the oldest and most primitive thoracopterid discovered yet. The roof of its skull was broad, as is seen in later thoracopterids, which probably evolved to help it live and feed in the ocean's uppermost waters.

    This newfound fish was probably not a glider. It lacked the bottom-heavy tail fin seen in all known subsequent thoracopterids that helped them generate the power needed to launch them out of the water. Wushaichthys also lacked the winglike fins seen in later thoracopterids that would have helped them glide. Moreover, Wushaichthys was fully covered in scales, unlike more advanced thoracopterids that lost their body scales, which presumably helped improve their gliding efficiency and maneuverability.

    "Resembling modern flying fish, thoracopterid flying fishes most probably used gliding as an escape strategy from predators," Xu told Live Science.

    These new findings yield major insights on the evolution of flight in thoracopterids. Based on Wushaichthys and other thoracopterid fossils, Xu and his colleagues suggest the development of gliding in these fish was a gradual, four-step process. First, they evolved skulls that helped them live in surface waters. Next, they evolved tails that helped launch them from the water. Then, they evolved winglike fins that helped them glide. Finally, they lost body scales to make them more aerodynamic.

    Xu suggests these findings could help explain the evolution of flight in modern flying fishes as well, due to similarities in body shape between the extinct thoracopterids and living exocoetids.

    "Overwater gliding adaptations were gradual in nature," Xu said.

    However, these findings show at least one major difference between thoracopterids and exocoetids. Although modern flying fish are all egg-layers, male Wushaichthys possessed hooklets on the anal fin resembling those seen on modern viviparous, or live-bearing, fish, which suggests thoracopterids gave birth to live offspring just like humans and whales do.

    "These hooklets played an important role in sperm transfer to females," Xu said. "A study of the living viviparous guppy showed that up to threefold more sperm were transferred when males had hooklets compared with those with hooklets removed."

    Xu and his colleagues Li-Jun Zhao and Chen-Chen Shen detailed their findings online today (Jan. 7) in the journal Biology Letters.

    No One Knows Why Megalodon Went Extinct

    So Megalodon was huge, relentless, and the apex predator of the Pliocene and Miocene epochs. What went wrong? Well, this giant shark may have been doomed by global cooling (which culminated in the last Ice Age), or by the gradual disappearance of the giant whales that constituted the bulk of its diet. By the way, some people believe Megalodons still lurk in the ocean's depths, as popularized in the Discovery Channel show Megalodon: The Monster Shark Lives, but there's absolutely no reputable evidence to support this theory.

    Watch the video: Βρήκαμε τα πιο περίεργα gadgets #4. katerinaop22 (December 2022).