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4: How to be a Good Pathogen - Biology

4: How to be a Good Pathogen - Biology


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  • Reading assignment: skim/review chapter 18 in Belk’s Biology p466-477

Vocabulary:

  • zoonoses
  • adhesins
  • reservoir
  • host receptors
  • transmission
  • antibodies
  • vehicles
  • toxins
  • arthropod vectors
  • enzymes
  • fomites
  • pyogenic
  • portals of entry

To be a good pathogen, one must follow some basic steps: (determinants of infectious disease)

  1. maintain a reservoir
  2. transmission to new host
    • enter host->portals of entry
  3. attach to host cells
  4. “outsmart”/evade host defenses
  5. cause damage to host
  6. leave host to find new hosts

1. Maintain a reservoir

3 types of reservoirs

a. humans: ex HIV, cold virus

b. animals

-human diseases caused by pathogens which use animals as a reservoir are called “zoonoses”

-ex rabies, “Bird Flu”

c. environment

  • water, soil
  • ex anthrax, fungal infections, cholera

2. Transmission: leave reservoir and find new host (see Belk’s Biology p476-477)

a. Direct: infected host contacts new host and passes pathogen to new host

i. vertical: pathogen passed from mom to baby

ex. HIV, rubella virus, syphilis

ii. horizontal: spread among members of a population

-sexual contact: HIV, HPV, herpes, chlamydia infections

-fluid exchange ex saliva and kissing

ex meningitis, “strept throat”

-bites: rabies

b. Indirect: infected host need NOT be present for pathogen to be passed to new host

-vehicles: water, soil, food

Ex. anthrax, botulism, cholera, polio, prions, hepatitis A

-fomites: inanimate objects contaminated with pathogens

ex smallpox

-blood supplies/donations

ex HIV, hepatitis B/C

-contaminated needles

HIV, hepatitis B/C

-arthropod vectors: West Nile virus, malaria, Lyme Disease

Note: the term “contagious” is defined: a communicable disease that is easily transmitted from a reservoir or patient. (source: Bauman’s Microbiology)

c. “Portals of entry”: how to “get into” host

-broken or damaged skin

- mucous membranes:

gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, genital tracts, conjunctiva

-placenta

3. Attaching to host cell

  1. Adhesins: surface molecules on pathogen bind to host receptors
  2. Host receptors: surface molecules on host cells. Pathogen adhesins bind to “complementary” host cell surface receptors (like a lock and key)
  3. Antibodies against pathogen adhesins: antibodies bind to adhesins and block ability of pathogen to bind to host cells, thus stops disease!

4. “Outsmarting”/evading host defenses

a. capsules: prevent phagocytosis by protective host cells

b. toxins (leukocidins) to kill protective cells -triggers “pus” production

pus= fluid containing dead tissue cells, leukocytes and pathogens

-found in abscesses. Pimples, boils and pustules are examples of pus-filled abscesses

-microbes which trigger pus production are called “pyogenic”= pus-makers

- 2 common pyogenic bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

c. changing pathogen surface molecules outwits antibodies

d. superantigens “short circuit” immune system

5. Damage to host-a few examples

a. enzymes: examples of some enzymes produced by Staphylococcus aureus

1. enzymes which permit pathogen to invade tissues =hyaluronidase breaks down intercellular “cement” , permits pathogen to spread between cells

2. enzymes which help pathogen “hide” ex coagulase triggers fibrin clot formation around pathogen; camouflage, impedes access of phagocytes

3. enzymes which permit escape from fibrin clots: ex staphylokinase, breakdown fibrin clots, permit spread of pathogen

b. membrane pore-forming substances examples

1. hemolysins lyse red blood cells

2. leukocidins: destroy defensive leukocytes/white blood cells

c. toxins

-example: endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria: trigger circulatory collapse, shock, death

-ex exotoxins such as tetanus, botulinum toxins, diphtheria toxins (disrupt normal cell function)

6. Leave host and find another host!

Study guide How to be a good pathogen

1. What is a “reservoir”?

Provide one specific example of a pathogen which uses each of the following reservoirs

a. humans

b. (non-human) animals

c. environment

2. What is a “zoonosis”? Specific examples?

3. What are “fomites”?

4. What does “transmission” mean?

Describe the following and provide one specific example of a pathogen which is transmitted in the following ways:

  1. direct, contact transmission
  2. indirect transmission
  3. horizontal transmission
  4. vertical transmission

e. arthropod-vector transmission

5. Why is important that a pathogen attach to host cells?

-What do the following terms mean?

a. adhesin

b. host surface receptor

-draw and label a diagram showing how a pathogen may attach to a host cell

6. How can antibodies against pathogen adhesins protect hosts from colonization by a pathogen? Draw and label a diagram to help illustrate your answer.

7. Describe the function of the following microbial virulence factors by filling-in the table:

Virulence factor

function

Hyaluronidase

Coagulase

Staphylokinase

Leukocidins

Hemolysin

Exotoxin

endotoxin

8. What does “pyogenic” mean?

  • name 2 pyogenic bacterial pathogens.
  • what is “pus”?
  • what are: abscesses, pimples, pustules, boils?

9. How can pathogens evade/avoid defenses/immune responses of the host?


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Q. Ebola virus is an example of a pathogen associated with which risk group? A). Risk group-1 B). Risk group-2 C). Risk group-3 D). Risk group-4 Answer: Risk group-4 Explanation: The members of the genus Ebolavirus are considered to be Risk Group-4 (RG4) human pathogens and RG4 animal pathogens. Ebolavirus is also represented as … Read more

Q. Which polysaccharide is an important component in the structure of many animals and fungi? Answer: The polysaccharide chitin is the major component in the structure of many animals and all fungal cells. Chitin is used in the synthesis of fungal cell walls. While in animals, especially the exoskeleton of insects is made of chitin. … Read more


Contents

Synthetic biology is an outgrowth of biotechnology distinguished by the use of biological pathways or organisms not found in nature. This contrasts with "traditional" genetically modified organisms created by transferring existing genes from one cell type to another. Major goals of synthetic biology include re-designing genes, cells, or organisms for gene therapy development of minimal cells and artificial protocells and development of organisms based on alternative biochemistry. [1] This work has been driven by the development of genome synthesis and editing tools, as well as pools of standardized synthetic biological circuits with defined functions. The availability of these tools has spurred the expansion of a do-it-yourself biology movement. [2] : 5 [3]

Synthetic biology has potential commercial applications in energy, agriculture, medicine, and the production of chemicals including pharmaceuticals. [1] Biosynthetic applications are often distinguished as either for "contained use" within laboratories and manufacturing facilities, or for "intentional release" outside of the laboratory for medical, veterinary, cosmetic, or agricultural applications. [2] : 24 As synthetic biology applications become increasingly used in industry, the number and variety of workers exposed to synthetic biology risk is expected to increase. [4]

Biosafety Edit

Biosafety hazards to workers from synthetic biology are similar to those in existing fields of biotechnology, mainly exposure to pathogens and toxic chemicals used in a laboratory or industrial setting. [1] [4] These include hazardous chemicals biological hazards including organisms, prions, and biologically-derived toxins physical hazards such as ergonomic hazards, radiation, and noise hazards and additional hazards of injury from autoclaves, centrifuges, compressed gas, cryogens, and electrical hazards. [5]

Novel protocells or xenobiological organisms, as well as gene editing of higher animals, may have novel biosafety hazards that affect their risk assessment. As of 2018, most laboratory biosafety guidance is based on preventing exposure to existing rather than new pathogens. [4] Lentiviral vectors derived from the HIV-1 virus are widely used in gene therapy due to their unique ability to infect both dividing and non-dividing cells, but unintentional exposure of workers could lead to cancer and other diseases. [1] [4] In the case of an unintentional exposure, antiretroviral drugs can be used as post-exposure prophylaxis. [4]

Given the overlap between synthetic biology and the do-it-yourself biology movement, concerns have been raised that its practitioners may not abide by risk assessment and biosafety practices required of professionals, [2] : 39 although it has been suggested that an informal code of ethics exists that recognizes health risks and other adverse outcomes. [3] : 15

Biosecurity Edit

The rise of synthetic biology has also spurred biosecurity concerns that synthetic or redesigned organisms could be engineered for bioterrorism. This is considered possible but unlikely given the resources needed to perform this kind of research. [1] However, synthetic biology could expand the group of people with relevant capabilities, and reduce the amount of time needed to develop them. [6] : 2–7

A 2018 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) report identified three capabilities as being of greatest concern. The first is the recreation of known pathogens from scratch, for example using genome synthesis to recreate historical viruses such as the Spanish Flu virus or polio virus. [3] : 12, 14 [6] : 2–7 Current technology allows genome synthesis for almost any mammalian virus, the sequences of known human viruses are publicly available, and the procedure has relatively low cost and requires access to basic laboratory equipment. However, the pathogens would have known properties and could be mitigated by standard public health measures, and could be partially prevented by screening of commercially produced DNA molecules. In contrast to viruses, creating existing bacteria or completely novel pathogens from scratch was not yet possible as of 2018, and was considered a low risk. [6] : 39–43, 54–56

Another capability of concern cited by NASEM is engineering existing pathogens to be more dangerous. This includes altering the targeted host or tissue, as well as enhancing the pathogen's replication, virulence, transmissibility, or stability or its ability to produce toxins, reactivate from a dormant state, evade natural or vaccine-induced immunity, or evade detection. The NASEM considered engineered bacteria to be a higher risk than viruses because they are easier to manipulate and their genomes are more stable over time. [6] : 5, 44–53

A final capability of concern cited by NASEM is engineering microbes to produce harmful biochemicals. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms is a well established field that has targeted production of fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals, but it could be used to produce toxins, antimetabolites, controlled substances, explosives, or chemical weapons. This was considered to be a higher risk for naturally occurring substances than for artificial ones. [6] : 59–65

There is also the possibility of novel threats that were considered lower risks by NASEM due to their technical challenges. Delivery of an engineered organism into the human microbiome has the challenges of delivery and persistence in the microbiome, though an attack would be difficult to detect and mitigate. Pathogens engineered to alter the human immune system by causing immunodeficiency, hyperreactivity, or autoimmunity, or to directly alter the human genome, were also considered lower-risk due to extreme technical challenges. [6] : 65–83

Environmental Edit

Environmental hazards include toxicity to animals and plants, as well as adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. For example, a toxin engineered into a plant to resist specific insect pests may also affect other invertebrates. [2] : 18 Some highly speculative hazards include engineered organisms becoming invasive and outcompeting natural ones, and horizontal gene transfer from engineered to natural organisms. [7] [8] Gene drives to suppress disease vectors may inadvertently affect the target species' fitness and alter ecosystem balance. [8]

In addition, synthetic biology could lead to land-use changes, such as non-food synthetic organisms displacing other agricultural uses or wild land. It could also cause products to be produced by non-agricultural means or through large-scale commercial farming, which could economically outcompete small-scale farmers. Finally, there is a risk that conservation methods based on synthetic biology, such as de-extinction, may reduce support for traditional conservation efforts. [8] [9]

Extrinsic Edit

Extrinsic biocontainment encompasses physical containment through engineering controls such as biosafety cabinets and gloveboxes, [4] [10] as well as personal protective equipment including gloves, coats, gowns, shoe covers, boots, respirators, face shields, safety glasses, and goggles. In addition, facilities used for synthetic biology may include decontamination areas, specialized ventilation and air treatment systems, and separation of laboratory work areas from public access. [10] These procedures are common to all microbiological laboratories. [4]

In agriculture, extrinsic biocontainment methods include maintaining isolation distances and physical pollen barriers to prevent modified organisms from fertilizing wild-type plants, as well as sowing modified and wild-type seed at different times so that their flowering periods do not overlap. [11]

Intrinsic Edit

Intrinsic biocontainment is the proactive design of functionalities or deficiencies into organisms and systems to reduce their hazards. It is unique to engineered organisms such as GMOs and synthetic organisms, and is an example of hazard substitution and of prevention through design. Intrinsic biocontainment can have many goals, including controlling growth in the laboratory or after an unintentional release, preventing horizontal gene transfer to natural cells, preventing use for bioterrorism, or protecting the intellectual property of the organism's designers. [4] There has been concern that existing genetic safeguards are not reliable enough due to the organism's ability to lose them through mutation. However, they may be useful in combination with other hazard controls, and may provide enhanced protections relative to GMOs. [2] : 6, 40–43 [4]

Many approaches fall under the umbrella of intrinsic biocontainment. Auxotrophy is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular compound required for its growth, meaning that the organism cannot survive unless the compound is provided to it. A kill switch is a pathway that initiates cell death that is triggered by a signal from humans. [2] : 40–43 [4] Inability of the organisms to replicate is another such method. [2] : 50

Methods specific to plants include cytoplasmic male sterility, where viable pollen cannot be produced and transplastomic plants where modifications are made only to the chloroplast DNA, which is not incorporated into pollen. [11]

Methods specific to viral vectors include splitting key components between multiple plasmids, omitting accessory proteins related to the wild-type virus' function as a pathogen but not as a vector, and the use of self-inactivating vectors. [4]

It has been speculated that xenobiology, the use of alternative biochemistry that differs from natural DNA and proteins, may enable novel intrinsic biocontainment methods that are not possible with traditional GMOs. This would involve engineering organisms that use artificial xeno nucleic acids (XNA) instead of DNA and RNA, or that have an altered or expanded genetic code. [2] : 33–36, 43, 49 These would be theoretically incapable of horizontal gene transfer to natural cells. There is speculation that these methods may have lower failure rates than traditional methods. [2] : 33–36, 43, 49 [4]

While the hazards of synthetic biology are similar to those of existing biotechnology, risk assessment procedures may differ given the rapidity with which new components and organisms are generated. [2] : 5 Existing risk analysis systems for GMOs are also applicable for synthetic organisms, [3] and workplace health surveillance can be used to enhance risk assessment. [4] However, there may be difficulties in risk assessment for an organism built "bottom-up" from individual genetic sequences rather than from a donor organism with known traits. [3] : v, vii Synthetic organisms also may not be included in preexisting classifications of microorganisms into risk groups. [2] : 20 An additional challenge is that synthetic biology engages a wide range of disciplines outside of biology, whose practitioners may be unfamiliar with microbiological risk assessment. [3] : v

For biosecurity, risk assessment includes evaluating the ease of use by potential actors its efficacy as a weapon practical requirements such as access to expertise and resources and the capability to prevent, anticipate, and respond to an attack. [6] : 2–7 For environmental hazards, risk assessments and field trials of synthetic biology applications are most effective when they include metrics on non-target organisms and ecosystem functions. [2] : 18 Some researchers have suggested that traditional life-cycle assessment methods may be insufficient because unlike with traditional industries, the boundary between industry the environment is blurred, and materials have an information-rich description that cannot be described only by their chemical formula. [12]

International Edit

United States Edit

In general, the United States relies on the regulatory frameworks established for chemicals and pharmaceuticals to regulate synthetic biology, mainly the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 as updated by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, as well as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. [7]

The biosafety concerns about synthetic biology and its gene-editing tools are similar to the concerns lodged about recombinant DNA technology when it emerged in the mid-1970s. The recommendations of the 1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA formed the basis for the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, which were updated in 2013 to address organisms and viruses containing synthetic nucleic acid molecules. [1] The NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Molecules are the most comprehensive resource for synthetic biology safety. Although they are only binding on recipients of NIH funding, other government and private funders sometimes require their use, and they are often voluntarily implemented by others. In addition, the 2010 NIH Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA provides voluntary guidelines for vendors of synthetic DNA to verify the identity and affiliation of buyers, and screen for sequences of concern. [13]

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates the health and safety of workers, including those involved in synthetic biology. In the mid-1980s, OSHA maintained that the general duty clause and existing regulatory standards were sufficient to protect biotechnology workers. [1]

Other countries Edit

In the European Union, synthetic biology is governed by Directives 2001/18/EC on the intentional release of GMOs, and 2009/41/EC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, [4] [3] : vi as well as Directive 2000/54/EC on biological agents in the workplace. [7] As of 2012, neither the European Community nor any member state had specific legislation on synthetic biology. [13]

In the United Kingdom, the Genetically Modified Organisms (Contained Use) Regulations 2000 and subsequent updates are the main law relevant to synthetic biology. [3] : 16 [13] China had not developed synthetic biology specific regulations as of 2012, relying on regulations developed for GMOs. [13] Singapore relies on its Biosafety Guidelines for GMOs, and the Workplace Safety and Health Act. [7]


Why Is Biology Important in Everyday Life?

Biology is important to everyday life because it allows humans to better understand their bodies, their resources and potential threats in the environment. Biology is the study of all living things, so it helps people to understand every organism alive, from the smallest bacteria to California redwoods and blue whales. Professional biologists often concentrate on a small subset of living organisms, such as birds, plants or bacteria.

The study of biology has helped humans to understand the similarities between all forms of life. For example, the genetic code that helps to construct all living organisms is very similar in all life forms. The genetic material is stored in the form of DNA for all plants, animals, bacteria and fungi. By studying the DNA of all these different life forms, biologists have determined that all living creatures are related to each other.

Biology has also helped doctors learn how to keep people healthy and fight off disease. Biologists have learned that things called pathogens, which are themselves other living entities, cause diseases. By understanding how these dangerous organisms work, scientists can fight them off. Because of biology, many people have lived long lives as they have been able to avoid diseases.


Chemotherapeutic Agents: Meaning, Characteristics and Factors

Microbial pathogens grow on and within the body of other living beings and their colonization may lead to disease, disability, and death. Thus the control or destruction of microbial pathogens within the bodies of humans and other animals to prevent them from causing a disease is of great importance.

The treatment of a disease with a chemical substance is called chemotherapy and the chemical substance used for the purpose is known as a chemotherapeutic drug/agent (generally called therapeutic drug/agent). Chemotherapy has been practiced by man for centuries, but it was early in the present century that chemical treatment of diseases revolutionized the field of medicine.

This turn in event is attributed to two discoveries. The first was the discovery of sulfa drugs (sulfonamides) that could be used successfully for the treatment of certain diseases caused by bacteria, whereas the second was the finding of a new and potent class of antibacterial drugs/agents, namely, antibiotics.

General Characteristics of Chemotherapeutic Agents:

Following are the important general characteristics of the antimicrobial agents or therapeutic drugs:

1. Selective Toxicity and Therapeutic Index:

A therapeutic agent must have selective toxicity, i.e., it must kill or inhibit the microbial pathogen while damaging the host as little as possible. The degree of selective toxicity may be expressed in terms of the therapeutic index. The therapeutic index is the ratio of the toxic dose to the therapeutic dose.

The toxic dose refers to the drug level at which the agent becomes too toxic for the host, while the therapeutic dose represents the drug level required for clinical treatment for a particular infection. However, the larger the therapeutic index, the better the chemotherapeutic agent (all other things being equal).

A drug that disrupts a microbial function not found in eucaryotic animal cells often has a greater selective toxicity and a higher therapeutic index. For example, penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell wall but has little effect on host cells because they lack cell walls therefore penicillin’s therapeutic index is high.

2. Side Effects:

A drug may have a low therapeutic index because it inhibits the same process in host cells or damages the host in other ways. These undesirable effects on the host, called side effects, are of many kinds and may involve almost any organ system (Table 45.1). Because side effects can be severe, chemotherapeutic agents should be administered with great care.

3. Range of Effectiveness:

Drugs vary considerably in their range of effectiveness. Many are narrow- spectrum drugs, i.e., they are effective only against a limited variety of pathogens (Table 45.2). Others are broad-spectrum drugs that attack many different kinds of pathogens.

Drugs may also be classified based on the general microbial group they act against antibacterial, antifungal, antiproiozoan, and antiviral. Some agents can be used against more than one group, for example, sulfonamides are active against bacteria and some protozoa.

4. Natural or Synthetic:

Chemotherapeutic agents can be synthesized by microorganisms or manufactured by chemical procedures independent of microbial activity. A number of the most commonly employed antibiotics are natural, i.e., totally synthesized by certain bacteria or fungi.

In contrast, several important chemotherapeutic agents are completely synthetic. (Table 45.3). The synthetic antibacterial drugs are the sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, and dapsone.

Many antiviral and antiprotozoan drugs are synthetic. An increasing number of antibiotics are semisynthetic. Semisynthetic antibiotics are natural antibiotics that have been chemically modified by the addition of extra chemical groups to make them less susceptible to inactivation by pathogens. Ampicillin, carbenicillin, and methicillin are good examples.

5. Microbicidal or Microbistatic:

Therapeutic agents, like disinfectants, can be either microbicidal or microbistatic (Table 45.4) Micro-biostatic agents reversibly inhibit growth if the agent is removed, the microorganisms will recover and grow again.

Although a microbicidal agent kills the target pathogen, its activity is concentration dependent and the agent may be only microbistatic at low levels. The effect of an agent also varies with the target species: an agent may be microbicidal for one species and microbistatic for another.

Because microbistatic agents do not directly destroy the pathogen, elimination of the infection depends on the host’s own resistance mechanisms. A microbistatic agent may not be effective if the host’s resistance is too low.

6. Determination of Effectiveness:

Some idea of the effectiveness of a therapeutic agent against a pathogen can be determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC is the lowest concentration of a drug that prevents growth of a particular pathogen.

The minimal lethal concentration (MLC) is the lowest drug concentration that kills the pathogen. A microbicidal drug kills pathogens at levels only two to four times the MIC, whereas a microbistatic drug kills at much higher concentrations (if at all).

Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Chemotherapeutic Agents:

Treatment of diseased bodies by administering therapeutic drugs or antimicrobial agents is not a simple matter. We know that there are variety of ways by which the drugs are administered in the body, and also the drugs do not always spread rapidly throughout the body or immediately kill all invading pathogens. During all these practices, a complex array of factors influence the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs.

The important factors are the following:

1. Mode of Administration of Drug:

The drug must actually be able to reach the site of infection. The mode of administration plays an important role. A drug such as penicillin G is not suitable for oral administration because it is relatively unstable in stomach acid. Some antibiotics—for example, gentamycin and other aminoglycosides—are not well absorbed from the intestinal tract and must be injected intramuscularly or given intravenously.

Other antibiotics (neomycin, bacitracin) are applied topically to skin lesions. Nonoral routes of administration often are called parenteral routes. Even when an agent is administered properly, it may be excluded from the site of infection.

For example, blood clots or necrotic tissue can protect bacteria from a drug, either because body fluids containing the agent may not easily reach the pathogens or because the agents is absorbed by materials surrounding it.

2. Pathogen’s Susceptibility to Drug:

The pathogen must be susceptible to the drug. Bacteria in abscesses may be dormant and therefore resistant to chemotherapy, because penicillins and many other agents affect pathogens only if they are actively growing and dividing.

A pathogen, even though growing, may simply not be susceptible to a particular agent. For example, penicillins and cephalosporins, which inhibit cell wall synthesis, do not harm mycoplasmas, which lack cell walls.

3. Pathogen’s MIC Value:

The therapeutic drug must exceed the pathogen’s MIC value for its greater effectiveness. The concentration reached will depend on the amount of drug administered, the route of administration and speed of uptake, and the rate at which the drug is cleared or eliminated from the body. It makes sense that a drug will remain at high concentrations longer if it is absorbed over an extended period and excreted slowly.


How Are Pathogens Transmitted?

Pathogens can be transmitted either directly or indirectly. Direct transmission involves the spread of pathogens by direct body to body contact. Direct transmission can occur from mother to child as exemplified with HIV, Zika, and syphilis. This type of direct transmission (mother-to-child) is also known as vertical transmission. Other types of direct contact through which pathogens can be spread include touching (MRSA), kissing (herpes simplex virus), and sexual contact (human papillomavirus or HPV). Pathogens can also be spread by indirect transmission, which involves contact with a surface or substance that is contaminated with pathogens. It also includes contact and transmission through an animal or an insect vector. Types of indirect transmission include:

  • Airborne - pathogen is expelled (typically by sneezing, coughing, laughing, etc.), remains suspended in air, and is inhaled by or comes in contact with respiratory membranes of another person.
  • Droplets - pathogens contained in droplets of body fluid (saliva, blood, etc.) contact another person or contaminate a surface. Saliva droplets are most commonly spread through sneezing or coughing.
  • Foodborne - transmission occurs through eating contaminated food or by improper cleaning habits after handling contaminated food.
  • Waterborne - pathogen is spread by consumption or contact with contaminated water.
  • Zootonic - pathogen is spread from animals to humans. This includes insect vectors that transmit disease through biting or feeding and transmission from wild animals or pets to humans.

While there is no way to completely prevent pathogen transmission, the best way to minimize the chances of acquiring a pathogenic disease is by maintaining good hygiene. This includes washing your hands properly after using the restroom, handling raw foods, handling pets or pet excrement, and when coming in contact with surfaces that have been exposed to germs.


Spring 2021

BIOG 1250: Politics of Sex & Scientific Research

  • 1 cr., S/U, February 8, 2021 - March 26, 2021, Tuesday 2:40 pm - 4:35 pm
  • Faculty: Caitlin Miller ( [email protected] )

What is sex? How has sex been studied historically? How have political and societal structures shaped the way sex is studied, addressed, and interpreted in scientific research? In this course we will examine and discuss the implicit and explicit biases present in the study of sex across the fields of evolutionary, behavioral ecology, neuroscience, and medical research. We will explore historical and cutting edge research in these fields using a case-study approach. The book "Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong-and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story&rdquo will be a central text for the course paired with primary literature for each topic and case-study.

BIOG 1250: The Age of Contagion: The Rise and Fall of Viruses

  • 1 cr., S/U, February 8, 2021 - March 26, 2021, Friday 2:40 pm - 4:35 pm
  • Faculty: Rachael Fieweger ([email protected])

For millennia, viral pathogens have been infiltrating the human population causing widespread disease and from their history we can better understand the outbreaks that currently burden mankind. This course takes a case-study approach to introduce students to the world of infectious disease by investigating outbreaks that have occurred throughout the globe during the 20 th and 21 st centuries. During this course, students will explore basic microbiology principles from the unique perspective of global health and epidemiology. Key topics cover the emergence, pathogenesis, control, and socioeconomic effects of viral pandemics, including Ebola, HIV, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2.

BIOG 1250: Defending Against Pathogens: Our Molecular Arsenal

Even though as humans we have our own inherent defense against pathogenic microbes, our immune system, against some pathogens this defense is not enough. To protect against the pathogens that plague us, humans have developed a molecular arsenal, mainly vaccines and antimicrobial agents, in order to aid our immune system and successfully defend against harmful microbes. This course takes students through the history of vaccines and antimicrobial agents that have been developed for some of the toughest pathogens, such as smallpox, tuberculosis, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. Through this course students will explore the process it takes to develop these tools, the biology behind them, and the implications they have for public health.

BIOG 1250: Keep Calm & Be Science Literate in the Pandemic

Unsubstantiated claims about COVID-19 and vaccines circulate as rapidly as the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and they can be just as serious. How can you distinguish pseudoscience from real science? How can you make well-informed decisions about your health if you don&rsquot know immunology? The answer is that you become science literate &hellip capable of asking questions, finding scientifically reputable sources, determining answers, and engaging in productive social conversations based on your informed views. This course will teach students how to evaluate scientific claims and make science-informed views. It will provide a foundation of basic understanding of the immunology of vaccines and the COVID-19 pandemic. Students will apply science literacy skills by exploring a sociocultural issue of the pandemic, such as vaccine hesitancy, and communicating their informed views.

BIOG 1250: Pathogens of Mice & Men: Animal Models in Medicine

From the current COVID-19 pandemic to Romaine lettuce recalls, pathogens make the news when there are outbreaks, but researchers are always studying these disease-causing microorganisms and rely upon a variety of cell-based and animal models to do so. In this course, students will explore the basics of bacterial pathogenesis, the models that scientists use to learn about pathogens, and the benefits, limitations, and ethics associated with these models. As students explore these topics week by week, they will also learn to read and understand primary literature as we work through relevant sections of a representative primary research article in class. By the end of the course, students will be equipped to present a primary research article of their choice, addressing the topics covered in the course.


The signaling role of CD40 ligand in platelet biology and in platelet component transfusion

The CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a transmembrane molecule of crucial interest in cell signaling in innate and adaptive immunity. It is expressed by a variety of cells, but mainly by activated T-lymphocytes and platelets. CD40L may be cleaved into a soluble form (sCD40L) that has a cytokine-like activity. Both forms bind to several receptors, including CD40. This interaction is necessary for the antigen specific immune response. Furthermore, CD40L and sCD40L are involved in inflammation and a panoply of immune related and vascular pathologies. Soluble CD40L is primarily produced by platelets after activation, degranulation and cleavage, which may present a problem for transfusion. Soluble CD40L is involved in adverse transfusion events including transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Although platelet storage designed for transfusion occurs in sterile conditions, platelets are activated and release sCD40L without known agonists. Recently, proteomic studies identified signaling pathways activated in platelet concentrates. Soluble CD40L is a good candidate for platelet activation in an auto-amplification loop. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory role of CD40L in physiological and pathological conditions. We will focus on the main signaling pathways activated by CD40L after binding to its different receptors.

Figures

Sheme of the CD40 ligand gene structure and its different isoforms. Intracellular domain…

CD40L and its receptors: the…

CD40L and its receptors: the binding of CD40L to CD40, αIIbβ3, α5β1, or…

Schematic overview of the regulation…

Schematic overview of the regulation of platelet CD40L and the role of sCD40L…

Principal signaling pathways inducing platelet…

Principal signaling pathways inducing platelet activation in platelet components. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated…


Want to keep learning?

The Role of Antifungal Stewardship

  • Replication of the fungus (fungal cells can invade tissues and disrupt their function)
  • Immune response (by immune cells or antibodies)
  • Competitive metabolism (consuming energy and nutrients intended for the host)
  • Toxic metabolites (for example Candida species can produce acetaldehyde, a carcinogenic substance, during metabolism)

Superficial mycoses

Superficial fungal infection of trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton tonsurans under the microscope A patient suffering from cutaneous candidosis A patient suffering from chronic oral candidosis

Advanced Placement

Advanced placement credit is awarded to students who earn qualifying scores on AP and IB subject examinations. See the equivalency charts on the Office of Undergraduate Admissions website at https://www.odu.edu/admission/undergraduate/credit. Official score reports should be sent to the Office of Admissions prior to registration for evaluation.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Courses

BIOL𧅩N . Biology for Nonscience Majors I . 4 Credits .

An introductory biology course for nonbiology majors. This course concentrates on major biological concepts concerning molecular biology, cellular biology, cellular reproduction, classical and molecular genetics, energetics, and ecology. This course would be beneficial to students pursuing elementary education degrees due to the discussion of biological topics included in the Virginia Standards of Learning. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅹N and BIOL𧅺N or BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N.

BIOL𧅪N . Biology for Nonscience Majors II . 4 Credits .

An introductory biology course for nonbiology majors. This course concentrates on plants and animals at the organismal level by examining major biological concepts involving diversity, ecology, behavior, and evolution. This course would be beneficial to those students who are pursuing elementary education degrees because it teaches biological topics included in the Virginia Standards of Learning. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅹N and BIOL𧅺N or for BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N.

BIOL𧅮N . Environmental Sciences . 3 Credits .

An introductory, non-sequential course for nonbiology majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the fundamental biological underpinnings of environmental science. The course concentrates on ecology, evolution, the nature of and threats to biodiversity, and conservation solutions. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅹N or BIOL𧅻N. BIOL𧅮N + BIOL𧅯N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅯N.

BIOL𧅯N . Environmental Sciences Lab . 1 Credit .

Laboratory activities and scientific experiments that enhance understanding of environmental science through a hands-on approach that cannot be provided in the lecture classroom setting. BIOL𧅮N + BIOL𧅯N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅺N or BIOL𧅼N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅮N.

BIOL𧅰N . Environment and Man . 3 Credits .

An introductory, non-sequential course for nonbiology majors focusing on the most serious environmental problems our society is facing today and how these problems can be solved. The course concentrates on the science behind natural resources and resource management, toxicology, environmental policies and ethics, and sustainable living. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅹N or BIOL𧅻N. BIOL𧅰N and BIOL𧅱N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅱N.

BIOL𧅱N . Environment and Man Laboratory . 1 Credit .

Laboratory activities and experiments that enhance understanding of the scientific method and environmental sciences through a hands-on approach that cannot be provided in the lecture classroom setting. This course cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅺N or BIOL𧅼N. BIOL𧅰N + BIOL𧅱N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅰N.

BIOL𧅵N . Introduction to Human Biology . 3 Credits .

An introductory lecture course for non-majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the structure and function of the human body with units on diet, nutrition, exercise, infectious disease, and cancer. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅹N or BIOL𧅻N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅶N.

BIOL𧅶N . Introduction to Human Biology Lab . 1 Credit .

An introductory lab course for non-majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the structure and function of the human body with units on diet, nutrition, exercise, infectious disease, and cancer. Cannot be substituted for BIOL𧅺N or BIOL𧅼N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅵N.

BIOL𧅹N . General Biology I . 3 Credits .

An introduction to the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. Students required to take BIOL𧅹N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅩N, BIOL𧅪N, BIOL𧅮N, BIOL𧅰N, or BIOL𧅵N. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL𧅮C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅺N and MATH𧅦M or higher.

BIOL𧅺N . General Biology I Lab . 1 Credit .

A lab course emphasizing the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. Students required to take BIOL𧅺N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅯N, BIOL𧅱N, or BIOL𧅶N. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL𧅮C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅹N and MATH𧅦M or higher.

BIOL𧅻N . General Biology II . 3 Credits .

An introduction to the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Students required to take BIOL𧅻N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅩N, BIOL𧅪N, BIOL𧅮N, BIOL𧅰N, or BIOL𧅵N. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH𧅦M or higher, and BIOL𧅹N passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅼N.

BIOL𧅼N . General Biology II Lab . 1 Credit .

A lab course emphasizing the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Students required to take BIOL𧅼N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅯N, BIOL𧅱N, or BIOL𧅶N. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH𧅦M or higher, and BIOL𧅹N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅻N.

BIOL𧆈N . Honors General Biology I . 3 Credits .

This course is available only to students in the Honors College. An introduction to the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. Students required to take BIOL𧆈N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅩N, BIOL𧅪N, BIOL𧅮N, BIOL𧅰N, or BIOL𧅵N. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, and enrollment in the Honors College. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆉N and MATH𧅦M or higher.

BIOL𧆉N . Honors General Biology I Lab . 1 Credit .

This lab course is available only to students in the Honors College. This lab course emphasizes the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. Students required to take BIOL𧆉N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅯N, BIOL𧅱N, or BIOL𧅶N. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, and enrollment in the Honors College. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆈N and MATH𧅦M or higher.

BIOL𧆊N . Honors General Biology II . 3 Credits .

This course is available only to students in the Honors College. An introduction to the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Students required to take BIOL𧆊N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅩N, BIOL𧅪N, BIOL𧅮N, BIOL𧅰N, or BIOL𧅵N. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH𧅦M or higher, enrollment in the Honors College, and BIOL𧆈N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆋N.

BIOL𧆋N . Honors General Biology II Lab . 1 Credit .

This lab course is available only to students in the Honors College. This lab course emphasizes the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Students required to take BIOL𧆋N cannot earn credit for BIOL𧅯N, BIOL𧅱N, or BIOL𧅶N. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL𧅮C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH𧅦M or higher, enrollment in the Honors College, and BIOL𧆈N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆊N.

BIOL𧆖 . Introductory Microbiology . 3 Credits .

A course designed to acquaint the student with the elementary principles of bacteriology and other disease causing microorganisms. Emphasis is placed on microorganisms as etiological agents in disease, on practical methods of disinfection, and on the factors of infection and immunity. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆗.

BIOL𧆗 . Introductory Microbiology Laboratory . 1 Credit .

A course designed to acquaint the student with the elementary principles of bacteriology and other disease causing microorganisms. Emphasis is placed on microorganisms as etiological agents in disease, on practical methods of disinfection, and on the factors of infection and immunity. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧆖.

BIOL𧇃 . Biology Lab Topics . 1-3 Credits .

BIOL𧇄 . Topics . 1-3 Credits .

BIOL𧇰 . Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology I . 4 Credits .

This is the first of a two-part course that investigates the structure and function of the human body. Emphasis is on the basic organization of the body, biochemical composition, cellular structure, function, tissues and organs of the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, sensory and endocrine. In lab, students will study the interrelationship between structure and function of the human body using models, histological preparations, and human and feline anatomical specimens. Students with credit for BIOL𧇰 cannot receive credit for BIOL𧇺.

BIOL𧇱 . Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology II . 4 Credits .

The second of a two-part course that investigates the structure and function of the human body. Emphasis is on the basic organization of the body, biochemical composition, cellular structure, function, tissues and organs of the following systems: cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive and human development. In lab, students will study the interrelationship between structure and function of the human body using models, histological preparations, and human and feline anatomical specimens. Students with credit for BIOL𧇱 cannot receive credit for BIOL𧇻. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰.

BIOL𧇺 . Human Anatomy and Physiology I . 4 Credits .

This course emphasizes the gross anatomical relationships and the molecular, cellular, physiological, and metabolic process of the integument, musculoskeletal, neural, and immune systems. Students with credit for BIOL𧇺 cannot receive credit for BIOL𧇰.

BIOL𧇻 . Human Anatomy and Physiology II . 4 Credits .

This course emphasizes the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiac, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Only BIOL𧇻 (4 credits) may count toward upper-division elective requirements for the Biology major. Students with credit for BIOL𧇻 cannot receive credit for BIOL𧇱. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇺 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL𧈣 . Ecology . 3 Credits .

An introduction to the basic concepts of ecology for both biology majors and nonmajors. The concepts are introduced with respect to terrestrial and aquatic environments. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈤 . Evolution . 3 Credits .

An introduction to the basic concepts of evolution for both biology majors and nonmajors. The concepts are introduced with respect to terrestrial and aquatic environments. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈥 . Cell Biology . 3 Credits .

A comprehensive course in the structural and functional features of cells, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The course will also examine biomacromolecules, techniques in cell and molecular biology, and current frontiers in cell biology research. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈦 . Genetics . 3 Credits .

An introduction to the principles of biological inheritance and variation and the molecular basis of gene structure and function. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈬 . Fundamental Biomolecules . 3 Credits .

This course provides a detailed understanding of the four major classes of organic biological molecules as well as inorganic biological molecules (vitamins and trace minerals). The course focuses on how these biomolecules relate to everyday life for a diversity of organisms. This course will additionally emphasize current research and topics in the media as they pertain to biomolecules. This course counts as an elective for BIOL majors students with premedical, dental or veterinary emphasis should consider if this course will satisfy requirements for medical, dental, or veterinary schools. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N or BIOL𧆊N or BIOL𧇻 with a C or better and CHEM𧅫N or CHEM𧅻N or CHEM𧆭T with a C or better.

BIOL𧈮 . Introduction to immunology . 3 Credits .

A review of the phenomena of immune resistance, the cells and tissues involved in immune responses and the consequences of immunization. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈥.

BIOL𧈰 . Animal Nutrition . 3 Credits .

The course incorporates the fields of animal physiology, biochemistry, ecology and behavior to provide a comprehensive framework for energy acquisition, processing, and use in animals. The course content integrates cellular and molecular mechanisms of digestion and absorption, with tissue-specific and whole-animal metabolism, to the environmental influences on food resource availability and the diverse adaptations of animals to specific dietary and energetic constraints. The course primarily focuses on vertebrate animals. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈱.

BIOL𧈱 . Animal Nutrition Laboratory . 2 Credits .

This course in comparative animal nutrition and metabolism explores how diverse animals accomplish the universal task of acquiring food energy from their environments, processing and assimilating these resources, and use food energy in metabolism to support vital functions (e.g. growth, repair, reproduction). Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈰.

BIOL𧈲 . Human Genetics . 3 Credits .

Human genetics applies the principles of genetics to understanding human disease and evolution. It covers classical genetics, molecular genetics and population genetics, meeting the undergraduate genetics requirement for biology and biochemistry majors. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅹N, BIOL𧅺N, BIOL𧅻N, and BIOL𧅼N or the equivalent with a grade of C (2.0) or better. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM𧊹.

BIOL𧈳 . Invertebrate Zoology . 5 Credits .

An examination of the invertebrate phyla with emphasis on classification, morphology, phylogeny, and general biology. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈴 . Botany . 4 Credits .

A general introduction to the structure, function, ecology, and diversity of plants. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈵 . Foundations of Pathophysiology . 4 Credits .

This course is designed to teach the fundamentals of abnormal functions essential to understanding diseases, disease processes, and production of signs and symptoms. Chemical, biological, and biochemical alterations in physiology of all major organ systems will be considered. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰/BIOL𧇱 OR BIOL𧇺/BIOL𧇻.

BIOL𧈶 . Field Invertebrate Zoology . 5 Credits .

An examination of the invertebrate phyla with emphasis on classification, morphology, phylogeny, and general biology. This course will be taught as a full, immersive, field course in the Florida Keys. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧈷 . Global Change Biology . 3 Credits .

This course will emphasize the application of evolutionary and ecological principles such as species geographic range shifts, changes in phenology, acclimation, adaptation, and extinction in response to global environmental changes. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher.

BIOL𧈹 . Introduction to Neuroanatomy . 4 Credits .

This course is designed to give students a comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of the human nervous system, with a major focus on neuroanatomy. The basic principles of cellular neuroscience, neurophysiology, as well as, the sensory and motor pathways will be discussed in detail. Clinically relevant applications will be discussed when relevant. The laboratory component of this course will use cadavers and human tissue to study head and neck structures. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇱 or BIOL𧇻 and BIOL𧈥 must be passed with a C (2.0) or better.

BIOL𧈺 . Developmental Biology . 5 Credits .

An analysis of development in animals. Lectures will explore experimental approaches to the study of gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage and morphogenesis. Laboratories will emphasize the morphological features of the developing vertebrate embryo. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰 or BIOL𧇺 and BIOL𧇱 or BIOL𧇻 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM𧇓.

BIOL𧈼 . General Microbiology . 3 Credits .

This lecture course is a general survey of the nature and diversity of microorganisms, especially bacteria but including viruses and fungi, the roles and functions of microorganisms and basic microbiological research. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈽.

BIOL𧈽 . General Microbiology Laboratory . 2 Credits .

Laboratory course emphasizing basic techniques in microbiology. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈼.

BIOL𧉂 . Ethnobotany . 3 Credits .

A survey of plants used for food, fiber, medicine, dyes, perfumes, oils, and waxes. The role of plants in folklore and religion is included. A student research project with a written paper and presentation is required. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 AND BIOL𧈴 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧉋 . Marine Biology . 3 Credits .

A survey of the variety, ecology and adaptations of marine organisms. The course is designed to broadly introduce students to life in the oceans and the many special features of marine species that have evolved in the earth's oldest and most extensive ecosystem. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL𧉎 . Field Ethnobotany . 4 Credits .

Identification, ecology, and uses of plants and mushrooms for food, oils, dyes, and cordage, based on collection and preparation of local materials. A field-intensive course with hands-on experience. A class project and presentation are required. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧉐 . Vertebrate Zoology . 4 Credits .

This course will emphasize the organisms classified as vertebrates - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals - in addition to their evolutionary relatives. Detailed discussions of the changes that accompany this diversification of life will include topics in evolution, comparative anatomy, geology, and taxonomy. The lab will be a survey of specimens representing the major groups discussed in lecture. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher.

BIOL𧉔 . Field Botany . 4 Credits .

A survey of plants and plant communities of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Skills in plant and mushroom identification, specimen preparation, and research databases are emphasized. Most classes are field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧉚 . Plant Geography . 3 Credits .

The distribution and characteristics of major plant community types in North America and practices used in the study of biogeography are discussed. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧉞 . Phage Discovery and Genomics I . 4 Credits .

This course is the first semester of a two-semester laboratory and scientific writing course designed to provide a unique undergraduate research experience. It focuses on the discovery of viruses (also known as bacteriophage or phage) that infect bacteria with an emphasis on laboratory techniques. Students will collect phage from environmental samples and learn the laboratory techniques required for the isolation, purification and propagation of viruses. Students will further characterize phage based on microscopy, molecular microbiology techniques, and nucleic acid sequencing. This course emphasizes independent research and additional time outside of the laboratory will be required for sample collection and analysis. This course also is designed to complement the MonarchTeach curriculum. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈦.

BIOL𧉟 . Phage Discovery and Genomics II . 3 Credits .

This is the second course of a two semester laboratory and scientific writing sequence that is designed to provide a unique research experience for undergraduate students. The second semester course is a continuation of the research on the phage project that was started in Phage Discovery and Genomics I (BIOL𧉞). The students will analyze the newly sequenced bacteriophage genome using bioinformatics tools with an emphasis on Genomics. The bioinformatics will be completed using computer software, mathematical modeling and presented in formal scientific laboratory reports and formal presentations. Upon successful completion of the year-long course, some students will be invited to participate in the SEA-PHAGE program coordinated by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The course is designed with an emphasis on independent research that could lead to a scientific publication. Prerequisites: BIOL𧉞 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher.

BIOL𧉣 . Stem Cell Biology . 3 Credits .

Tissue homeostasis requires the birth of new cells, typically derived from stem cells, as well as the removal of cells that are not needed or have become damaged. This course will focus on understanding the mechanisms by which new cells are generated and old or diseased cells are removed. The pathological consequences of failures in one or both of these key processes will be explored as well. Applications of stem cells to regenerative medicine will be considered in detail. Prerequisites: A grade of "C" or higher in BIOL𧈥.

BIOL𧉯 . Cooperative Education . 1-3 Credits .

Student participation for credit in a paid work environment based on the academic relevance of the work experience as determined by the department and the Cooperative Education program, prior to the semester in which the work experience is to take place. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the cooperative education experience is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. Prerequisites: approval by the department chair and Cooperative Education/Career Development Services.

BIOL𧉰 . Internship . 1-3 Credits .

Supervised participation in non-research professional setting. Requires a minimum of 3 hours per week or equivalent for 1 credit, completion of work report and other documents relevant to the work experience, and supervisor evaluation. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the internship is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher, junior standing, and the approval of a full-time biology faculty member.

BIOL𧉱 . Practicum . 1-3 Credits .

A supervised experience in a research, teaching, or a work/field setting and culminating in the preparation of a written document relevant to the practicum experience. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the practicum is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher, acceptance as a declared major, junior class status, and approval by the sponsoring full-time biology faculty member and the practicum coordinator.

BIOL𧉼 . Research in Pathogen Biology I: Laboratory Investigation . 4 Credits .

This is the first course of a two-semester laboratory and analysis sequence that is designed to provide a genuine research experience for undergraduate students. Students will design a novel research question in pathogen biology, then use modern laboratory techniques such as polymerase chain reaction and next-generation DNA sequencing to examine this question and test hypotheses. Data generated in this course will be analyzed in the second course in the series, BIOL𧉽. Data and analyses generated during these courses may be used for publication in scientific journals. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈦.

BIOL𧉽 . Research in Pathogen Biology II: Analysis . 4 Credits .

This is the second course of a two-semester laboratory and analysis sequence that is designed to provide a genuine research experience for undergraduate students. In this semester, students will analyze data generated during the previous semester in BIOL𧉼. Modern methods of data analysis will be used, including statistical and bioinformatics techniques. Data and analyses generated during these courses may be used for publication in scientific journals. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈦 BIOL𧉼 preferred.

BIOL𧊋 . Topics . 1-3 Credits .

A structured specialty course designed to meet the needs of students in biology. Students are expected to perform at the level of other junior level classes. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL𧊌 . Topics in Biological Sciences . 4-5 Credits .

A structured specialty course for students at the junior level. Courses may include lecture and laboratory components. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N with grades of C or better.

BIOL 400/500 . Plant Systematics . 4 Credits .

An evolutionary survey of vascular plant families and the principles and methodologies that define them lab emphasis is placed on recognition and skills of identification. A lab and field intensive hands-on course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 and BIOL𧈴 with a C or better.

BIOL 401W/501 . Entomology . 4 Credits .

A comprehensive survey of the insects, including taxonomy, morphology, physiology, reproductive and developmental biology, and ecology. Research techniques in entomology will be learned through both field and laboratory work. Writing skills will be learned through written summaries, essay exams, laboratory reports and research proposals. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL 402/502 . Scientific Diving Methods for Marine Research . 4 Credits .

This lecture/field experience course will train students in the common techniques used by marine scientists who employ scuba for their research. It satisfies the requirements for an American Academy of Underwater Scientist certification and covers other topics such as: use of underwater research equipment and marine resource surveys. A multi-day scuba trip is required. Prerequisites: junior standing and scuba diving certification.

BIOL 403/503 . Medical Microbiology . 3 Credits .

This course integrates the disciplines of microbiology, immunology, and biochemistry with the pathophysiology of infections and the appropriate pharmacology in a problem-based learning setting. Students will learn the fundamental concepts and terminologies of infectious diseases. The material will be case studies in small group tutorials and emphasize independent learning. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰 or BIOL𧇺, BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽, and CHEM𧊹 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or instructor approval.

BIOL 404/504 . Conservation Biology . 5 Credits .

The application of fundamental biological principles to the preservation of biodiversity, including the role of ecological and evolutionary theory to the preservation of biotas on a regional and global basis. Lectures will cover modern approaches to conservation biology, including conservation ethics and management issues. Laboratories will include discussion of case studies, introduction to software applicable to conservation biology, presentations by regional conservation practitioners, and visits to relevant field sites. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing or permission of instructor.

BIOL𧊕W . Biology Seminar . 3 Credits .

This course offers a capstone experience in scientific writing, faculty-mentored library research, the review and synthesis of material from the primary technical literature, and oral presentation. Students will develop a deeper understanding of the purposes and types of scientific writing, the structure and interpretation of technical papers, and the oral and written communication skills appropriate to the discipline. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣, BIOL𧈤, BIOL𧈥, and BIOL𧈦 and two 300- or 400-level elective courses, a grade of C or better in ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C, and CS𧅸G or CS𧅹G or CS𧅾G or HLTH𧅸G or IT𧆖G or STEM𧇻G.

BIOL 407/507 . The Pharmacology and Neurobiology of How Recreational Drugs Work . 3 Credits .

This course in drug use and abuse is designed to distinguish between drug use and drug abuse as well as provide pharmacological knowledge of how recreational drugs work. Students will acquire knowledge regarding the abuse of prescription drugs, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, marijuana and inhalants. This information will be used to analyze pathophysiological conditions that can occur as a result of drug use and abuse. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈥 or equivalent. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧊘 recommended.

BIOL 408/508 . Introduction to Pharmacology . 4 Credits .

This is a general introductory course in pharmacology dealing with chemistry, general properties and pharmacological effects on various physiological systems, therapeutic usefulness and toxicities of drugs. The course is designed to prepare upper-level undergraduate and graduate students for more advanced courses in pharmacology. Prerequisite: course background in cell biology and/or human physiology.

BIOL 411/511 . Zymology: Fermentation Science . 4 Credits .

This is an introductory course in the theory and practice of zymology (fermentation). Edible and potable products of fermentation (beer, wine, mead, yogurt, cheese) have been known since antiquity and play an important role in today’s society. The science of fermentation touches on many biological disciplines, such as microbiology and biochemistry, and the study of yeasts has provided considerable foundation to the fields of cell biology and molecular biology. In this course, we will cover fundamentals of fermentation and its practical application to production of beer, one of the oldest beverages produced by humans. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈥.

BIOL 412/512 . Plant Physiology . 4 Credits .

Discover the incredible secrets behind what makes our green friends tick. This course includes a traditional lecture covering the physiological and chemical processes occurring in plants. A laboratory, greenhouse, and/or field-oriented lab will provide hands-on opportunities to understand plant stress responses, nutrient use, cell metabolism-respiration, photosynthesis, hormones, and processes driving growth patterns. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 OR BIOL𧈴 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈥 and CHEM𧇓.

BIOL 415W/515 . Marine Ecology . 5 Credits .

A lecture and laboratory course designed to introduce students to important ecological processes operating in coastal marine environments this is a writing-intensive course. The course covers synthetic topics as well as the ecology of specific marine habitats. The laboratory is designed to provide students with experience in marine research and the organisms and ecological conditions common in various marine habitats visited by the class. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧉋 and ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher instructor approval required.

BIOL 416/516 . Clinical Immunology . 3 Credits .

A description of common immunological problems seen in the clinic. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈮.

BIOL 419/519 . Wetland Plants . 4 Credits .

An exploration of the ecology of inland and coastal wetlands and their plants. The course emphasizes wetland and aquatic plant identification, field and laboratory methods, and core concepts important to wetland plants and their ecology. Linkages to wetland delineation and wetland adjacent systems will be made. Weekly field-based laboratories are expected to local wetlands focusing on hands on opportunities and research methods. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 OR BIOL𧈴 must be passed with a grade of 'C' or higher prerequisite waivers may be requested from the instructor.

BIOL 420/520 . Ichthyology . 5 Credits .

The biology of marine and freshwater fishes including morphology, physiology, evolution, distribution, ecology, and reproduction. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing.

BIOL 422/522 . Field Studies in Ornithology . 4 Credits .

A combined lecture and field study of birds with emphasis on identification, behavior, and field methods. Extensive field trips, including at least one weekend, are taken. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 423W/523 . Cellular and Molecular Biology . 3 Credits .

The molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is presented along with cell evolution, molecular genetics, the internal organization of the cell and the behavior of cells in multicellular organisms. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥, BIOL𧈦, and a grade of C or better in ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C.

BIOL 424/524 . Comparative Animal Physiology . 5 Credits .

An introduction to the basic mechanisms by which different animals function. How organisms acquire and use energy, regulate their internal environment, circulate and exchange gases and wastes, receive and conduct information about their environment, and move and use muscles will be some of the topics covered. Emphasis will be on how organisms make changes in these basic mechanisms to deal with different environmental conditions. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 425/525 . Cancer Biology . 3 Credits .

This course will examine how mutation leads to altered gene products and expression, subverted cell activity, cell immortalization, and tumor formation. Students will explore the differences between benign tumors and malignant tumors as well as the factors involved in malignancy. The course will conclude with the exploration of current cancer therapy. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 426/526 . Histology . 5 Credits .

The structure and function of cells, tissues and organs at both the light microscopic and ultrastructural levels. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰 or BIOL𧇺 and BIOL𧈥 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 430W/530 . Microbial Pathogenesis . 3 Credits .

Examination of bacterium-host interactions with an emphasis on how bacteria cause disease, particularly the means by which the bacterium is able to circumvent host defense mechanisms. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽 and a grade of C or better in ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C.

BIOL𧊰W . Modern Plant-Animal Interactions . 3 Credits .

This is a writing intensive course. It is designed to engage students in learning about the different types of plant-animal interactions that occur in a variety of the Earth’s ecosystems. The goal is to understand these interactions and their significance, how they shape communities and ecosystems, and how they maintain biodiversity. A variety of animal taxa and their relationships with plants are investigated, including birds, mammals, bats, fishes, and insects. Varied ecosystems, including wetlands, prairies, tropical and hardwood forests, agricultural lands, tundra, oceans, lakes and more, will be considered. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤.

BIOL 435/535 . Marine Conservation Biology . 3 Credits .

This highly interdisciplinary science of conserving marine biodiversity will be taught through a review of old and new literature. This will include its history, marine ecology related to conservation biology, threats to marine biodiversity, assessment of extinction risk, conservation challenges of marine habitats and regions, and methods for conserving marine biodiversity. Prerequisites: BIOL𧉋 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 436W/536 . Infectious Disease Epidemiology . 3 Credits .

This lecture course will focus on concepts related to the spread and control of infectious diseases. This course is a writing-intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣, and BIOL𧈥, and BIOL𧈦, and MATH𧇈 or MATH𧆣 or MATH𧇓 or MATH𧇍, and STAT𧆂M or STAT𧈶, and ENGL𧇧C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇓C all must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher.

BIOL 437W/537 . One Health: People, Animals and the Environment . 3 Credits .

A course that examines the interdependence between human health, animal health and environmental health. The One Health approach to the threat of emerging infectious diseases includes understanding the interconnectedness of human and animal pathogens, epidemic zoonoses and corresponding environmental factors, insights into mechanisms of microbial evolution towards pathogenicity, new technologies and approaches towards disease surveillance, and political and bureaucratic strategies. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈥. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈤 and BIOL 303 a Microbiology course is recommended.

BIOL 438/538 . The Biology of Woody Plants . 4 Credits .

The study of trees and shrubs (dendrology), their identification, ecology, structure and anatomy, and uses are emphasized in this field-oriented course. A research project including a written paper and presentation is required. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈴 or its equivalent must be passed with a grade of 'C' or higher.

BIOL 440/540 . Methods in Immunological Research . 4 Credits .

The major objective of this hands-on course is to use basic laboratory techniques to prepare monoclonal antibodies to use for identification and characterization of mouse immune cells. Students will learn basic training in molecular and cellular biology techniques aiming at building basic knowledge in flow cytometry, from the experimental designs to data acquisition and analysis. The course will cover instrumentation, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications in immunology. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈮, BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽.

BIOL 441/541 . Animal Behavior . 5 Credits .

Animal behavior with special attention to its evolution and ecological significance. Field and laboratory activities will emphasize the observational and experimental techniques used to study behavior. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 444/544 . Field Studies in Marine Biology . 5 Credits .

An intensive study abroad field course offered during the summer at a foreign marine laboratory where students will be engaged in lectures and field studies of coastal marine environments. Check with the Director of the Marine Biology Concentration Program for details. Prerequisite: BIOL𧉋 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 445/545 . Community Ecology . 3 Credits .

The goal of this course is to introduce and evaluate both classical and emerging paradigms in community ecology. This will be achieved by examining those processes (biotic and abiotic) that structure ecological communities and by exposing students to quantitative and theoretical aspects of these paradigms. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 446/546 . Comparative Biomechanics . 3 Credits .

The principles of fluid and solid mechanics will be applied to a variety of plant and animal systems to understand how organisms deal with the immediate physical world and its accompanying constraints. A diverse range of topics will be covered, including aerial flight in insects, wind resistance in trees, jet propulsion in squid, flow within blood vessels, forces on intertidal organisms, viscoelasticity in biological materials, and energy storage during terrestrial movement. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 must be passed with a grade of C or higher PHYS𧅯N and PHYS𧅰N are recommended.

BIOL𧋁 . Microbial Impact on Human Health . 3 Credits .

This course introduces the student to microorganisms with particular emphasis placed on their role in health, wellness and disease. Economic, social and cultural issues related to utilization, control, and research of the bacteria and viruses are also considered. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 or BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or better.

BIOL 450/550 . Principles of Plant Ecology . 4 Credits .

This course explores theoretical concepts in plant ecology through review of classical and cutting-edge literature and practice with field-based experimental design and statistical methods. This course emphasizes the structure, development, and processes that drive patterns in plant communities and the ecological communities they support. Weekly field-based laboratories involve hands-on experience and opportunities to explore field methods in ecological research. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 OR BIOL𧈴.

BIOL 451/551 . Bioinformatics and Genomics I . 4 Credits .

The application of computer science to biology has led to major breakthroughs in the ability to read and understand the code written in genomes. This course will give students the skills to participate in the computational revolution in biology. The course will give students hands-on experience in writing simple yet powerful computer programs in the Python programming language and making beautiful data visualizations in the R programming language. Students will also learn how to combine existing pieces of bioinformatics software for their own workflows. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher, junior standing, and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 452/552 . Bioinformatics and Genomics II . 4 Credits .

The application of computer science to biology has led to major breakthroughs in the ability to read and understand the code written in genomes. This course will give students the skills to participate in the computational revolution in biology. The course will build on the knowledge of writing programs. Students will learn about some key techniques “under the hood” of software that have been critical to the genomics revolution. Topics will include: graph algorithms, evolutionary trees, probability models for DNA and protein sequences, and an introduction to deep learning in biology. Prerequisites: Knowledge of Python programming and permission of instructor, or BIOL𧋃 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL 453/553 . Molecular Ecology . 4 Credits .

This course will explore the biology of organisms by using molecular (nucleic acid and/or protein) techniques and data. It covers a wide variety of subdisciplines within Biology, including genetics, physiology, ecology, and evolution. This course will explore basic theory in population genetics, ecology, and evolution and cover DNA, RNA, and Protein techniques and their application to biological research. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣, BIOL𧈤, BIOL𧈥, AND BIOL𧈦 all must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 457/557 . General Virology . 3 Credits .

A basic course covering the history of virology, viral taxonomy, genetics, and the molecular biology and host responses to the major mammalian virus groups. Examples of recent impacts of viruses on human health such as influenza pandemics will also be covered. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 460/560 . Frontiers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology . 1 Credit .

Review of the structure, synthesis and properties of key nano-materials and their impact on living systems. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 461/561 . Human Cadaver Dissection . 5 Credits .

Students will dissect a human cadaver fully and learn all of the major structures. The course will be divided into three sections: back and limbs, TAP (thorax, abdomen and pelvis), and head and neck. Instructor demonstrations include brain removal and dissection. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇱 or BIOL𧇻, or its equivalent, must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL 462/562 . Microbial Genetics . 3 Credits .

This course will emphasize the fundamental concepts of microbial genetics including the study of gene structure, gene regulation, operons, DNA replication, RNA biology, protein synthesis, plasmid biology, mobile genetic elements, and recombinant DNA technology. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL 463/563 . Cell Signaling in Host Pathogen Interactions . 3 Credits .

This course will emphasize cell dynamics including host and pathogen induced cellular signaling, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and the modulation of host transcription and translation by different pathogens. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈥.

BIOL 464/564 . Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Plasmas . 3 Credits .

This course is cross listed between ECE and Biology. It is intended for senior undergraduate students and first year graduate students. The course contents are multidisciplinary, combining materials from engineering and the biological sciences. The course covers an introduction to the fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas, low temperature plasma sources, and cell biology. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the interaction of low temperature plasma with biological cells, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Potential applications in medicine such as wound healing, blood coagulation, sterilization, and the killing of various types of cancer cells will be covered. Prerequisites: Senior standing.

BIOL 465/565 . Biotechnology . 3 Credits .

This course provides an overview of how microbes are manipulated to solve practical problems through biotechnology. Topics include basic concepts in microbial technology, industrial microbiology, microbes in drug development, food microbiology, microbial interactions, gut microbiota, and metagenomics. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of instructor.

BIOL 466W/566 . Introduction to Mitigation and Adaptation Studies . 3 Credits .

Students will be introduced to the science underpinning mitigation of human-induced changes in the Earth system, including but not limited to climate change and sea level rise, and adaptation to the impacts of these changes. The course will cover the environmental hazards and the opportunities and limitations for conservation, mitigation and adaptation. This is a writing intensive course. Cross listed with IDS𧋒W and OEAS𧋒W. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 467/567 . Sustainability Leadership . 3 Credits .

In this class, students will discover what makes a leader for sustainability. They will consider a range of global and local crises from a leadership point of view in the context of sustainability science, which addresses the development of communities in a rapidly changing social, economic, and environmental system-of-systems environment. The course will be based on taking a problem-motivated and solution-focused approach to the challenges considered. The course includes a service learning project focusing on a leadership experience in solving a real-world environmental problem. Prerequisite: BIOL𧋒W or OEAS𧋒W or IDS𧋒W.

BIOL𧋔W . Research Methods in Mathematics and Science . 3 Credits .

Emphasizes the tools and techniques used to solve scientific problems. Topics include use and design of experiments, use of statistics to interpret experimental results, mathematical modeling of scientific phenomena, and oral and written presentation of scientific results. Students will perform four independent inquiries, combining skills from mathematics and science to solve research problems. Required for Biology teaching licensure track not available as upper-division elective in content area. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈳 or BIOL𧈴 or BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽 or MATH𧇔 and ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C and STEM𧇉 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of instructor, and admission to Monarch Teach.

BIOL 470T/570 . Diseases that Changed our World . 3 Credits .

Despite advancements in the development of antimicrobials and vaccines and in securing clear water and food supplies, modern civilizations are not immune to epidemic diseases. This course will provide insight into the role of different technologies in the struggle to attain disease control and eradication and explore the challenge of forecasting emerging plagues, describing the nature and evolution of diseases and conveying their significance in shaping Western culture and civilization, their impact, their consequences, their costs, and the lessons learned. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing with a general biology course (BIOL𧅻N or BIOL𧆊N or BIOL𧅵N).

BIOL 471W/571 . Marine Vertebrate Ecology, Management & Conservation . 3 Credits .

Course will explore the biology, diversity and major life history patterns of a suite of marine megafauna, including sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and sharks. Students will determine the major drivers behind large-scale declines of many marine megafauna species and be challenged to understand and attempt to solve conservation and management issues. This is a writing intensive course, with a focus on the content and mechanics of scientific writing. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣, BIOL𧈤, and ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C must be passed with a C (2.0) or better. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL𧉋 OR OEAS𧈲.

BIOL 474/574 . Mushrooms . 4 Credits .

This field oriented course emphasizes the identification, classification, ecology, culture, and uses of mushrooms and other fleshy fungi. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈴 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 475/575 . Neurobiology . 3 Credits .

This course will focus on understanding brain structure as well as the morphology and function of the central nervous system in general. Fundamental processes such as neuron morphogenesis, guidance, polarity, migration, and growth cone motility will be emphasized. The cellular and molecular basis of neurological disorders also will be discussed. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇰 or BIOL𧇺 or BIOL𧈥 must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher or permission of instructor.

BIOL 476/576 . Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy . 3 Credits .

Introduction to the immune system, tumor antigens, immunosuppressive cells and molecules, and cancer immunotherapy treatment approaches. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N, BIOL𧅼N, and BIOL𧈥 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 478/578 . Microbial Ecology . 3 Credits .

Study of the interactions between microorganisms, particularly bacteria, and their environment. Emphasis is placed on nutrient cycling and the influence of microbes on global mineral dynamics. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the distribution and activity of microbes in their environments and the applications (biotechnology) of these interactions are studied. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈼 and BIOL𧈽 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 479/579 . Microbial Ecology Laboratory . 1 Credit .

A laboratory for measurement of microbial numbers and activity in natural environments. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧋞.

BIOL 481W/581 . Forensic and Medical Entomology . 5 Credits .

This is a writing intensive course that provides a comprehensive survey of the insects used in legal investigations and medically important insects. Topics covered include the taxonomy, morphology, physiology, reproductive and developmental biology, and ecology of these insects along with the diseases they may vector. Research techniques in forensic and medical entomology will be learned through both field and laboratory activities. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL 482/582 . Human and Veterinary Parasitology . 3 Credits .

The course will emphasize the principles of parasitism, including biology, physiology, genetics, morphology, and phylogeny of the major parasitic groups with a specific focus on the significant parasites of humans and animals of veterinary importance. The general biology of parasites including their life cycles, diagnosis, and treatment will be included as well. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈥 and BIOL𧈦 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of instructor.

BIOL𧋧 . Honors Research in Biology . 2 Credits .

Student performs mentored research in biological science. Student and faculty mentor must meet on a regular basis. The course is intended to be taken as a series with BIOL𧋨W. Available for pass/fail grading only. Prerequisites: admission to the Honors Program and senior standing.

BIOL𧋨W . Honors Research in Biology . 4 Credits .

Independent study and scheduled meetings with faculty advisor. Supervised independent study in an area of individual interest in biology. The work in this course results in the production of a thesis. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL𧋧, admission to the Honors Program, senior standing, and a grade of C or better in ENGL𧇓C or ENGL𧇝C or ENGL𧇧C.

BIOL 490/590 . Advanced Human Physiology . 4 Credits .

All major physiological systems will be examined with an emphasis on normal physiology. Some clinical applications will be discussed. Prerequisites: BIOL𧇱 or BIOL𧇻 must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

BIOL𧋮 . Entrepreneurship in Biology . 3 Credits .

Ecological entrepreneurs consider the impact of products on the environment and are mindful of natural resources, sustainability, and social equity. In this novel class students will test their skill at biologically-inspired entrepreneurship after learning about biomimicry, sustainability, and other relevant concepts. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈣 and BIOL𧈤.

BIOL 496/596 . Topics in Biological Sciences . 1-4 Credits .

A structured specialty course for students at the senior level. Courses may include lecture and laboratory components. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher, junior standing, and permission of instructor.

BIOL𧋱 . Undergraduate Research . 1-3 Credits .

The student performs laboratory and/or field research under the supervision of a Department of Biological Sciences faculty member. The student must devote a minimum of 3 hours per week for the equivalent of 1 credit. The student must maintain lab/field notes, must submit a written report, may be required to give an oral presentation, and must be evaluated by the faculty supervisor. If 3 credits are taken, then BIOL𧋱 counts as an upper-level biology elective course with a laboratory or field component. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher, junior standing, permission of the supervising faculty member, and permission of the Chief Departmental Advisor and Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences.

BIOL 498/598 . Independent Study . 1-3 Credits .

This unstructured course is based on a supervised project, without a laboratory or field component, that is selected to suit the needs of the individual student. The completion of a formal scientific paper documented with the appropriate primary technical literature is required. An oral presentation also may be required. Contact the Chief Departmental Advisor for details. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅻N and BIOL𧅼N or BIOL𧆊N and BIOL𧆋N must be passed with a grade of C or higher junior standing, permission of the supervising faculty member, permission of the Chief Departmental Advisor, and permission of the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences also are required.


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