Caatinga Biome

Caatinga Biome

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Caatinga biome: found in the northeastern backcountry


The caatinga is a Brazilian biome, known as a dry and difficult to live backcountry, with irregular and poorly distributed rain, the caatinga is the only type of biome that only exists here in Brazil. Despite the difficult climate the caatinga is a dry forest with an immense biological diversity of flora and fauna.

Biome Location and General Data

Caatinga occupies an area of ‚Äč‚Äčabout 730 square kilometers, about 7% of the national territory, its territory occupies parts of the states of Maranhão, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Sergipe, Alagoas Bahia and Minas Gerais.

With a semi-arid climate, it is not only a territory that adds heavy droughts, it also tells of a range of species biodiversity that can only be found in this type of territory.

Fauna and Flora Characteristics

Due to the arid climate, the plants in this region adapt to the way they collect and store water for the dry season that usually lasts almost all year round.

In regions where the caatinga has a wetter soil, we can find common trees such as the famous juazeiro, aroeira and barauna and some vegetation.

In the driest regions the plantation is due to shrubs and lower plants that cover the soil, cacti are common in these areas such as the stalk, the mandacaru, the xique-xique they also serve as food for animals in dry and dry seasons. the bromeliads.

Examples of animals and plants

Some endangered animals live in this Brazilian biome such as the Blue Macaw where its last specimen of this species has not been seen living in the wild since the late 2000s. Other known and popular animals in the region are the Cururu toad, agouti. , white wing, skunk, catingue deer, tatupeba, preá and the white-tufted marmoset are examples of the species in this area.

Already the typical plants, mostly xerophytes, in this region there is not a huge catalog of diversity due to the climate, which make the plants are low density and can adapt to places without much water.

Some examples of the flora of the caatinga are cactus, juazeiro, umbuzeiro, palm, mandacaru, carnauba, cashew, cashew, ipe yellow, aroeira, slum, catingueira, oiticica, jurema.

Geography (soil, rivers, relief and climate)

This region has the largest number of intermittent rivers, that is, rivers that dry up in some parts due to the lack of rainwater.

Its average temperature is usually high, usually above 27 ° C and its rainfall scarce and in irregular periods.

The semi-arid climate and the process of deforestation, pollution and greenhouse effect have unbalanced the region's eco-system and in recent years the caatinga has been suffering from the process of desertification and soil salinization, that is, about forty thousand kilometers of the region are changing. in the desert.

This salinization is a consequence of the misuse of the caatinga soil and was aggravated due to the evaporation of the result of the high temperatures that each year has risen more with global warming.


Although the focus of deforestation is the Amazon region, the caatinga also suffers from this disease.

This region has been extensively exploited by the slow use of its vegetation for the cultivation of firewood by grazing since the late 16th century and by the practice of inadequate agriculture of this Brazilian biome.

Importance of conservation

The work to reduce the impact of drought in this region is important to maintain the conservation of this biome, it is the only biome found only here in Brazil, considered a natural heritage, and conserves much of one of the main rivers of Brazil, the São Francisco river, the caatinga holds a traditional, rich and unique diversity of this biome.


- The name Caatinga originates from the Tupi indigenous language and has meaning "white forest", due to its semiarid climate, its dry soil and hardly covered by green vegetation.