Information

If one endures the same form pain over a long period of time, would the pain begin to lose intensity?

If one endures the same form pain over a long period of time, would the pain begin to lose intensity?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Metaphorically thinking, if one endured the pain of constant burning for decades, would the pain slowly lose its strength?


Under the assumption that the temperature experienced is not high enough to simply burn the nerves responsible for the pain (which would lead to insensible regions), yes and it would due to what is called receptor desensitization. In the case of burning pain the receptor involved is called the transient-receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1). It is the same receptor involve in the oral burning sensation of spiciness.

Now two scenarios are possible given your question, namely a constant stimulus over a long period and "oscillating" stimuli (i.e. a repetition of stimuli followed by non-stimulated periods).

Constant stimulus

I provided a similar answer to this question: What features cause mechano sensory adaptation?. This is the scenario where you keep the painful stimulus constant over a period of time. Here desensitization, i.e. reduction in pain feeling, is due to a direct receptor desensitization. This happens because the receptor is internalized (also called receptor-mediated endocytosis) into the cell after being activated and it takes some times for the receptor to reach the cell membrane again meaning if the stimulus remains constant, pretty much no receptors will be left on the cell membrane. After decades long term desensitization will occur and is slightly different in it's mechanism compared to standard desensitization as described hereafter.

"Oscillating" stimuli

In the case you are talking about a chronic pain interrupted by periods of non stimulation then long term desensitization will occur. In this scenario, the concentration of receptors will be reduced semi-permanently (i.e. reduced expression of the receptor) in the receptor cells reducing the pain signal. This is what happens with spiciness sensation. People eating regularly very spicy will physiologically be less sensitive to spices as they have less receptors sensing the spices provoking a reduced burning sensation.


Just as a footnote, very long chronic pain will also change the brain wiring of the pain signal but as I don't know enough about neurobiology I will leave that appart.


Short answer
Chronic pain may be very persistent and even worsen over time, but it will depend on the underlying pathology. If the pathology disappears over time, so may the pain.

Background
There are roughly two kinds of pain:

  1. Acute pain is pain that lasts for a short time and occurs following surgery or trauma or other condition. It acts as a warning to the body to seek help.

  2. Chronic pain is pain that lasts beyond the time expected for healing healing following surgery or trauma or other condition. It can also exist without a clear reason at all.

A large body of basic research indicates that chronic pain is associated with neuroplastic changes in the nervous system at peripheral, spinal cord and brain levels. Thus chronic pain is shown to have a distinct pathology that often worsens over time, and constitutes a serious separate disease entity.

However, if the underlying pathology disappears, the pain may lessen. However, based on the cited paper, I do not think chronic pain gets less severe over time due to neural adaptation.

Excerpt from the linked article upon request:

These and other changes may contribute to the development of alterations in central [spinal] neuronal responsiveness, which share features of wind-up and long-term potentiation and are collectively known as “central sensitization.” [… ] These alterations in cell responsiveness may be evidenced by a number of symptoms and signs, including spontaneous pain [… ]. This [… ] has been demonstrated in patients who have chronic pain associated with whiplash injury and fibromyalgia and suggests that the presence of pain [… ] is associated with increased sensitivity of spinal neurons.

Reference
- Siddall & Cousins, Anesth Analg (2004); 99: 510-520.


Nightshades

The nightshades are members of an enormous family of plants called Solanaceae, represent a huge family of plants. The ones that concern us in the Western diet mainly include tomatoes, potatoes (not sweet potatoes or yams), eggplant and peppers—this means all peppers including chili peppers, habenero, cayenne pepper and paprika (not peppercorns, see sidebar). Paprika is a sneaky one, showing up in lots of flavoring mixes and often under “spices” on ingredient labels. Other nightshades include goji berries (the new darling of the antioxidant crowd), ashwagandha (an adaptogenic herb from Ayurvedic medicine), Cape gooseberries (not normal gooseberries), ground cherries and garden huckleberries (not blueberries).

I’m a licensed naturopathic physician in private practice, and I will admit right off the bat that I am biased against nightshades. I used to eat a ton of foods in the nightshade family, but now I avoid them as much as possible. I am one of those who is very sensitive to these foods. In my medical practice, I treat pain often. My goal in pain treatment is pain relief. In my opinion, pain management—that is, long-term painkillers, without a goal of true pain relief—is for suckers. For me and many of my patients, nightshade avoidance is the answer to long-term relief from pain.

Why should you care about this? It’s likely that you enjoy eating these foods and can’t imagine that they are bad for you in any way. Well, if you suffer from inflammation, joint pain and cracking, avoiding nightshades will lessen your pain, whether or not the nightshades are the true source of the pain. Are you sensitive to weather changes? This can be an indication of nightshade sensitivity. Muscle pain and tightness, morning stiffness, poor healing, arthritis, insomnia and gall bladder problems—these can all be caused by nightshades. Nightshades can also cause heart burn or GERD—a lot of people already know they react this way when they eat peppers or tomatoes.

Like soy, most nightshades are relative newcomers to European/Western diets. The tomato came to North America in the very early eighteenth century. It was termed the “love apple” and grown first as an ornamental. That means people grew it because it is pretty, yet they did not eat it. Why did they not eat it? They thought the tomato was poisonous. The leaves of the nightshade family are indeed overtly poisonous (livestock farmers know this well) and people avoided the fruit as well.

During a famine in 1782, Scottish highlanders complained of dropsy (an old term for edema or swelling, often associated with congestive heart failure) when they ate abundantly of potatoes. 1 Russian prisoners of World War II returned with advanced cases of dropsy, which was blamed on heavy potato consumption. 2 An old saying in New Hampshire in 1719 was that the white potato shortened men’s lives.

Eggplant was also first grown as an ornamental, a decorative plant. It was not eaten until relatively recent years in North America. According to Dr. Norman Childers, author of The Arthritis Diet, peoples of the Mediterranean area previously believed that the eggplant would cause insanity if it was eaten daily for a month, in fact, it had the nickname of “mad apple.” 3 How many foods that you eat have a reputation like that?

It’s extremely easy to overdose on nightshades in Western culture, especially if you are a foodie. Let’s say you have salsa on your eggs at breakfast, potato salad at lunch, and eggplant with peppers along with other spicy dishes at dinner. This is a large amount of nightshades, eaten three times per day, in multiple combinations. It’s very hard to avoid the nightshades, believe me, it’s a lot of work! This can be easily demonstrated by reading the menu at any restaurant— nightshades have become ubiquitous. Nightshade sensitivity, in terms of the vigilance needed to keep them out of the diet, is almost as bad as gluten sensitivity!

For those of you who think you have tried “everything” for your arthritis pain, tried this and tried that but haven’t tried avoiding nightshades— in my opinion, it’s something you do need to try. I can tell you as a naturopathic doctor that I have tried many different remedies for my middle back pain. Nightshade avoidance got rid of 90 percent of it. If you’re one of those people whose pain treatments (be it chiropractic, acupuncture, laser, energy medicine, whatever!) provides only a day or two of relief, you’re quite possibly nightshade sensitive.

A physical therapist once told me that if a patient isn’t responding to treatment, one of the first things to consider is nightshade sensitivity— there is simply nothing else that anyone can do to help somebody in pain when nightshade sensitivity is the cause—because once they eat some nightshades again, their pain will return as it was before. Sad but true, as I have witnessed many times in my practice.


Burning Sensation in Muscles

Your body responds to strenuous activity such as lifting weights, sprinting, cycling or other intense exercises in a variety of ways. Probably, the most common cause of a burning sensation in muscles during exercise is lactic acid, which is a natural byproduct of exertion that your body produces. The Cleveland Clinic calls this muscle pain a good pain and says it should end immediately after you stop the activity.

Why your body responds this way when working out often relates to the intensity of the exercise. "When you exercise very intense, your muscles can't get all the oxygen needed to break down glucose for energy quick enough, so lactic acid accumulates in muscles and spills over into the bloodstream," Dr. Allen Conrad, BS, DC, CSCS, a certified strength and conditioning specialist, tells LIVESTRONG.com.

Since lactic acid is produced from the body to help convert energy during your workout, Conrad explains that the faster and more intense the exercise is, the more burning you may feel as your body tries to break down food for energy. "The more strenuous the activity, the more lactic acid is spilled over into the bloodstream, which leads to more burning sensation during the exercise," he adds.


Diagnosis

Alcohol withdrawal is easy to diagnose if you have typical symptoms that occur after you stop heavy, habitual drinking. If you have a past experience of withdrawal symptoms, you are likely to have them return if you start and stop heavy drinking again. There are no specific tests that can be used to diagnose alcohol withdrawal.

If you have withdrawal symptoms from drinking, then you have consumed enough alcohol to damage other organs. It is a good idea for your doctor to examine you carefully and do blood tests, checking for alcohol-related damage to your liver, heart, the nerves in your feet, blood cell counts, and gastrointestinal tract. Your doctor will evaluate your usual diet and check for vitamin deficiencies because poor nutrition is common when someone is dependent on alcohol.

It is usually difficult for people who drink to be completely honest about how much they&rsquove been drinking. You should report your drinking history straightforwardly to your doctor so you can be treated safely for withdrawal symptoms.


When should I call my doctor?

  • You have any new signs or symptoms.
  • You have blood in your urine.
  • You are constipated or you have diarrhea.
  • You have changes in your vision.
  • You have increased fatigue.
  • You plan to travel by airplane or to a high elevation.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

Care Agreement

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2021 Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health


Subthreshold Trauma-Related Symptoms

Many trauma survivors experience symptoms that, although they do not meet the diagnostic criteria for ASD or PTSD, nonetheless limit their ability to function normally (e.g., regulate emotional states, maintain steady and rewarding social and family relationships, function competently at a job, maintain a steady pattern of abstinence in recovery). These symptoms can be transient, only arising in a specific context intermittent, appearing for several weeks or months and then receding or a part of the individual’s regular pattern of functioning (but not to the level of DSM-5 diagnostic criteria). Often, these patterns are termed “subthreshold” trauma symptoms. Like PTSD, the symptoms can be misdiagnosed as depression, anxiety, oran other mental illness. Likewise, clients who have experienced trauma may link some of their symptoms to their trauma and diagnose themselves as having PTSD, even though they do not meet all criteria for that disorder.

Combat Stress Reaction

A phenomenon unique to war, and one that counselors need to understand well, is combat stress reaction (CSR). CSR is an acute anxiety reaction occurring during or shortly after participating in military conflicts and wars as well as other operations within the war zone, known as the theater. CSR is not a formal diagnosis, nor is it included in the DSM-5 (APA, 2013a). It is similar to acute stress reaction, except that the precipitating event or events affect military personnel (and civilians exposed to the events) in an armed conflict situation. The terms 𠇌ombat stress reaction” and “posttraumatic stress injury” are relatively new, and the intent of using these new terms is to call attention to the unique experiences of combat-related stress as well as to decrease the shame that can be associated with seeking behavioral health services for PTSD (for more information on veterans and combat stress reactions, see the planned TIP, Reintegration-Related Behavioral Health Issues for Veterans and Military Families SAMHSA, planned f).

Case Illustration: Frank

Frank is a 36-year-old man who was severely beaten in a fight outside a bar. He had multiple injuries, including broken bones, a concussion, and a stab wound in his lower abdomen. He was hospitalized for 3.5 weeks and was unable to return to work, thus losing his job as a warehouse forklift operator. For several years, when faced with situations in which he perceived himself as helpless and overwhelmed, Frank reacted with violent anger that, to others, appeared grossly out of proportion to the situation. He has not had a drink in almost 3 years, but the bouts of anger persist and occur three to five times a year. They leave Frank feeling even more isolated from others and alienated from those who love him. He reports that he cannot watch certain television shows that depict violent anger he has to stop watching when such scenes occur. He sometimes daydreams about getting revenge on the people who assaulted him.

Psychiatric and neurological evaluations do not reveal a cause for Frank’s anger attacks. Other than these symptoms, Frank has progressed well in his abstinence from alcohol. He attends a support group regularly, has acquired friends who are also abstinent, and has reconciled with his family of origin. His marriage is more stable, although the episodes of rage limit his wife’s willingness to commit fully to the relationship. In recounting the traumatic event in counseling, Frank acknowledges that he thought he was going to die as a result of the fight, especially when he realized he had been stabbed. As he described his experience, he began to become very anxious, and the counselor observed the rage beginning to appear.

After his initial evaluation, Frank was referred to an outpatient program that provided trauma-specific interventions to address his subthreshold trauma symptoms. With a combination of cognitive– behavioral counseling, EMDR, and anger management techniques, he saw a gradual decrease in symptoms when he recalled the assault. He started having more control of his anger when memories of the trauma emerged. Today, when feeling trapped, helpless, or overwhelmed, Frank has resources for coping and does not allow his anger to interfere with his marriage or other relationships.

Although stress mobilizes an individual’s physical and psychological resources to perform more effectively in combat, reactions to the stress may persist long after the actual danger has ended. As with other traumas, the nature of the event(s), the reactions of others, and the survivor’s psychological history and resources affect the likelihood and severity of CSR. With combat veterans, this translates to the number, intensity, and duration of threat factors the social support of peers in the veterans’ unit the emotional and cognitive resilience of the service members and the quality of military leadership. CSR can vary from manageable and mild to debilitating and severe. Common, less severe symptoms of CSR include tension, hypervigilance, sleep problems, anger, and difficulty concentrating. If left untreated, CSR can lead to PTSD.

Common causes of CSR are events such as a direct attack from insurgent small arms fire or a military convoy being hit by an improvised explosive device, but combat stressors encompass a diverse array of traumatizing events, such as seeing grave injuries, watching others die, and making on-the-spot decisions in ambiguous conditions (e.g., having to determine whether a vehicle speeding toward a military checkpoint contains insurgents with explosives or a family traveling to another area). Such circumstances can lead to combat stress. Military personnel also serve in noncombat positions (e.g., healthcare and administrative roles), and personnel filling these supportive roles can be exposed to combat situations by proximity or by witnessing their results.

Advice to Counselors: Understanding the Nature of Combat Stress

Several sources of information are available to help counselors deepen their understanding of combat stress and postdeployment adjustment. Friedman (2006) explains how a prolonged combat-ready stance, which is adaptive in a war zone, becomes hypervigilance and overprotectiveness at home. He makes the point that the “mutual interdependence, trust, and affection” (p. 587) that are so necessarily a part of a combat unit are different from relationships with family members and colleagues in a civilian workplace. This complicates the transition to civilian life. Wheels Down: Adjusting to Life After Deployment (Moore & Kennedy, 2011) provides practical advice for military service members, including inactive or active duty personnel and veterans, in transitioning from the theater to home.

The following are just a few of the many resources and reports focused on combat-related psychological and stress issues:


Treatment depends on the type of mutation the cancer has, how far it's spread and how good your general health is.

If the condition is diagnosed early and the cancerous cells are confined to a small area, surgery to remove the affected area of lung may be recommended.

If surgery is unsuitable due to your general health, radiotherapy to destroy the cancerous cells may be recommended instead.

If the cancer has spread too far for surgery or radiotherapy to be effective, chemotherapy is usually used.

There are also a number of medicines known as targeted therapies. They target a specific change in or around the cancer cells that is helping them to grow. Targeted therapies cannot cure lung cancer but they can slow its spread.


Effects of being inflexible

Inadequate flexibility will have a negative effect on the body in 3 significant ways:

Joints require movement through a full range of motion to maintain the health of cartilage and other structures within the joint with increased blood supply and nutrients to joint structures with increased quantity of synovial joint fluid (oil in the crank case). This effect can be particularly noticeable in weight bearing joints such as the hips and knees.

Muscles that are inflexible tire more quickly, causing opposing muscle groups to work harder. Muscle fatigue can lead to muscular injuries and the inability of the muscles to protect joints from more severe injuries. For example, the hamstrings play a role in stabilizing the knee and preventing ACL tears.

Decreased flexibility may also lead to abnormal stress on structures and tissues distant from the initial site of inflexibility. One example of this is that tendonitis in the knee can be related to calf tightness.

Additional benefits of a regular stretching routine:

  • Increased neuromuscular coordination
  • Return of muscle to natural resting state
  • Modifying blood pooling, recirculation

How Do Doctors Diagnose Migraines?

Migraines are a diagnosis of exclusion—your provider will have to rule out other causes before saying you have migraines. To do this, doctors will perform the following:

Take a Medical History

You’ll be asked to describe your headaches as your doctor asks you some questions, including:

Is your headache better when you lie down, or when you sit up?

Is your headache worse when you bend over, or when you strain for a bowel movement? Does your headache change on the weekends?

What makes your headache better and what makes them worse? And where does it hurt? Does it hurt anywhere else at other times?

Is it burning, or pounding, or throbbing?

When you have a headache, would you rather be in a sunny or dark room? What about a quiet room?

There’s also a set of criteria by the International Headache Society that doctors follow to make a diagnosis for migraines with or without auras. Patients must have two of the following four features when it comes to headache pain:

It must be moderately to severely intense

It tends to occur on one side

It has a throbbing or pulsating quality

It has to get worse with routine physical activity

And they have to have one of the following two criteria while they’re having an attack:

Not being able to tolerate light and noise

If you have auras, they must include:

Visual or sensory symptoms that only last as long as your migraine attack

They’re usually followed by a headache, but not always. In fact, you may not have a headache (so you have a silent migraine) or you have such a mild one that the headache isn’t very apparent

Finally, a patient has had to have at least five attacks in their lifetime.

Imaging Tests

Not everyone needs a CT scan or MRI to rule out migraines. But to decide who does, doctors ask red-flag questions to see if there might be something more serious going on (like a brain bleed or underlying health condition, for instance). So a doctor will want to know if something happened before your headaches started.

They’ll likely ask if you’ve recently had an infection or a blow to the head. Or if your headaches started after the age of 50 and came upon you suddenly and very painfully (in the rare case you have an aneurysm that’s leaking blood). Or if the patterns to your headaches changed in any way—you now get them every day when you used to have them occasionally and they’re getting worse (a sign you might have a tumor).


Latin Translation Notes
a bene placito from one well pleased i.e., "at will" or "at one's pleasure." This phrase, and its Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito) derivatives, are synonymous with the more common ad libitum (at pleasure).
a maiore ad minus from the greater to the smaller From general to particular "What holds for all X also holds for one particular X." – argumentum a fortiori
a minore ad maius from the smaller to the greater An inference from smaller to bigger what is forbidden at least is forbidden at more ("If riding a bicycle with two on it is forbidden, riding it with three on it is at least similarly punished".)
a caelo usque ad centrum from the sky to the center i.e., "from Heaven all the way to the center of the Earth." In law, it may refer to the proprietary principle of cuius est solum, eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos ("whosoever is the soil, it is his up to the sky and down to the depths [of the Earth]").
a capite ad calcem from head to heel i.e., "from top to bottom," "all the way through," or "from head to toe." See also a pedibus usque ad caput.
a contrario from the opposite i.e., "on the contrary" or "au contraire". Thus, an argumentum a contrario ("argument from the contrary") is an argument or proof by contrast or direct opposite.
a falsis principiis proficisci to set forth from false principles Legal phrase. From Cicero, De Finibus IV.53.
a fortiori from the stronger i.e., "even more so" or "with even stronger reason." Often used to lead from a less certain proposition to a more evident corollary.
a pedibus usque ad caput from feet to head i.e., "completely," "from tip to toe," "from head to toe." Equally a capite ad calcem. See also ab ovo usque ad mala.
a posse ad esse from being able to being "From possibility to actuality" or "from being possible to being actual".
a posteriori from the latter Based on observation, i. e., empirical evidence. Opposite of a priori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something that is known after a proof has been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something known from experience.
a priori from the former Presupposed independent of experience the reverse of a posteriori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something that is known or postulated before a proof has been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something is supposed without empirical evidence. In everyday speech, it denotes something occurring or being known before the event.
a solis ortu usque ad occasum from sunrise to sunset
ab absurdo from the absurd Said of an argument either for a conclusion that rests on the alleged absurdity of an opponent's argument (cf. appeal to ridicule) or that another assertion is false because it is absurd. The phrase is distinct from reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid logical argument.
ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia The inference of a use from its abuse is not valid i.e., a right is still a right even if it is abused (e.g. practiced in a morally/ethically wrong way) cf. § abusus non tollit usum.
ab aeterno from the eternal Literally, "from the everlasting," "from eternity," or "from outside of time." Philosophically and theologically, it indicates something, e. g., the universe, that was created from outside of time. Sometimes used incorrectly to denote something, not from without time, but from a point within time, i.e. "from time immemorial," "since the beginning of time." or "from an infinitely remote time in the past")
ab antiquo from the ancient i.e., from ancient times
ab epistulis from the letters [1] Regarding or pertaining to correspondence. [1] Ab epistulis was originally the title of the secretarial office in the Roman Empire
ab extra from beyond/without Legal term denoting derivation from an external source, as opposed to a person's self or mind—the latter of which is denoted by ab intra.
ab hinc from here on Also sometimes written as "abhinc"
ab imo pectore from the deepest chest i.e., "from the bottom of my heart," "with deepest affection," or "sincerely." Attributed to Julius Caesar.
ab inconvenienti from an inconvenient thing New Latin for "based on unsuitability," "from inconvenience," or "from hardship." An argumentum ab inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties involved in pursuing a line of reasoning, and is thus a form of appeal to consequences. The phrase refers to the legal principle that an argument from inconvenience has great weight.
ab incunabulis from the cradle i.e., "from the beginning" or "from infancy." Incunabula is commonly used in English to refer to the earliest stage or origin of something, and especially to copies of books that predate the spread of the printing press c. AD 1500 .
ab initio from the beginning i.e., "from the outset," referring to an inquiry or investigation. Ab initio mundi means "from the beginning of the world." In literature, it refers to a story told from the beginning rather than in medias res ('from the middle'). In science, it refers to the first principles. In other contexts, it often refers to beginner or training courses. In law, it refers to a thing being true from its beginning or from the instant of the act, rather than from when the court declared it so. Likewise, an annulment is a judicial declaration of the invalidity or nullity of a marriage ab initio: the so-called marriage was "no thing" (Latin: nullius, from which the word "nullity" derives) and never existed, except perhaps in name only.
ab intestato from an intestate i.e., from a (dead) decedent, who died without executing a legal will cf. ex testamento
ab intra from within i.e., from the inside, as opposed to ab extra ("from without").
ab invito against one's will
ab irato from/by an angry person More literally, "from/by an angry man." Though the form irato is masculine, the application of t he phrase is not limited to men. Rather, "person" is meant because the phrase probably elides homo ("man/person"), not vir ("man"). It is used in law to describe a decision or action that is motivated by hatred or anger instead of reason and is detrimental to those whom it affects.
ab origine from the source i.e., from the origin, beginning, source, or commencement or, "originally."

Also rendered as absit iniuria verbis ("let injury be absent from these words"). cf. absit invidia.

Latin Translation Notes
barba crescit caput nescit beard grows, head doesn't grow wiser
barba non facit philosophum a beard doesn't make one a philosopher
barba tenus sapientes wise as far as the beard Wise only in appearance. From Erasmus's collection of Adages.
Beata Virgo Maria (BVM) Blessed Virgin Mary A common name in the Roman Catholic Church for Mary, the mother of Jesus. The genitive, Beatae Mariae Virginis (BMV), occurs often as well, appearing with such words as horae (hours), litaniae (litanies) and officium (office).
beatae memoriae of blessed memory See in memoriam
beati pauperes spiritu blessed in spirit [are] the poor. A Beatitude from Matthew 5:3 in the Vulgate: beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum "Blessed in spirit [are] the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens".
beati possidentes blessed [are] those who possess Translated from Euripides
beati qui ambulant lege domini blessed are they who walk in the law of the Lord Inscription above the entrance to St. Andrew's Church (New York City), based on the second half of Psalm 119:1
beati quorum via integra est blessed are they whose way is upright first half of Psalm 119:1, base of several musical setting such as Beati quorum via (Stanford)
beatus homo qui invenit sapientiam blessed is the man who finds wisdom From Proverbs 3:13 set to music in a 1577 motet of the same name by Orlando di Lasso.
Bella, mulier qui hominum allicit et accipit eos per fortis war, a woman who lures men and takes them by force Latin proverb [ citation needed ]
bella gerant alii
Protesilaus amet!
let others wage war
Protesilaus should love!
Originally from Ovid, Heroides 13.84, [12] where Laodamia is writing to her husband Protesilaus who is at the Trojan War. She begs him to stay out of danger, but he was in fact the first Greek to die at Troy. Also used of the Habsburg marriages of 1477 and 1496, written as bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube (let others wage war you, happy Austria, marry). Said by King Matthias.
bella detesta matribus war hateful to mothers From Horace
bello et jure senesco I grow old through war and law Motto of the House of d'Udekem d'Acoz [nl]
bellum omnium contra omnes war of all against all A phrase used by Thomas Hobbes to describe the state of nature
bellum Romanum war as the Romans did it All-out war without restraint as Romans practiced against groups they considered to be barbarians
bellum se ipsum alet war feeds itself
Biblia pauperum Paupers' Bible Tradition of biblical pictures displaying the essential facts of Christian salvation
bibo ergo sum I drink, therefore I am A play on "cogito ergo sum", "I think therefore I am"
bis dat qui cito dat he gives twice, who gives promptly A gift given without hesitation is as good as two gifts.
bis in die (bid) twice in a day Medical shorthand for "twice a day"
bona fide in good faith In other words, "well-intentioned", "fairly". In modern contexts, often has connotations of "genuinely" or "sincerely". Bona fides is not the plural (which would be bonis fidebus), but the nominative, and means simply "good faith". Opposite of mala fide.
bona notabilia note-worthy goods In law, if a person dying has goods, or good debts, in another diocese or jurisdiction within that province, besides his goods in the diocese where he dies, amounting to a certain minimum value, he is said to have bona notabilia in which case, the probat of his will belongs to the archbishop of that province.
bona officia good services A nation's offer to mediate in disputes between two other nations
bona patria goods of a country A jury or assize of countrymen, or good neighbors
bona vacantia vacant goods United Kingdom legal term for ownerless property that passes to The Crown
boni pastoris est tondere pecus non deglubere it is a good shepherd's [job] to shear his flock, not to flay them Tiberius reportedly said this to his regional commanders, as a warning against taxing the populace excessively.
bono malum superate overcome evil with good Motto of Westonbirt School
bonum commune communitatis common good of the community Or "general welfare". Refers to what benefits a society, as opposed to bonum commune hominis, which refers to what is good for an individual. In the film Hot Fuzz, this phrase is chanted by an assembled group of people, in which context it is deliberately similar to another phrase that is repeated throughout the film, which is The Greater Good.
bonum commune hominis common good of a man Refers to an individual's happiness, which is not "common" in that it serves everyone, but in that individuals tend to be able to find happiness in similar things.
boreas domus, mare amicus the North is our home, the sea is our friend Motto of Orkney
brutum fulmen harmless (or inert) thunderbolt Used to indicate either an empty threat, or a judgement at law which has no practical effect
busillis [it] baffling puzzle, thorny problem John of Cornwall (ca. 1170) was once asked by a scribe what the word meant. It turns out that the original text said in diebus illis [in those days], which the scribe misread as in die busillis [at the day of Busillis], believing this was a famous man. This mondegreen has since entered the literature it occurs in Alessandro Manzoni's novel The Betrothed (1827), in Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov (1880), and in Andrea Camilleri's Inspector Montalbano series.
  • Modesto tamen et circumspecto iudicio de tantis viris pronuntiandum est, ne, quod plerisque accidit, damnent quae non intellegunt.
    • Yet students must pronounce with diffidence and circumspection on the merits of such illustrious characters, lest, as is the case with many, they condemn what they do not understand. (translated by Rev. John Selby Watson)
    Latin Translation Notes
    faber est suae quisque fortunae every man is the artisan of his own fortune Appius Claudius Caecus motto of Fort Street High School in Petersham, Sydney, Australia
    fac et spera do and hope motto of Clan Matheson
    fac fortia et patere do brave deeds and endure motto of Prince Alfred College in Adelaide, Australia
    fac simile make a similar thing origin of the word facsimile, and, through it, of fax
    faciam eos in gentem unum I will make them into one nation appeared on British coinage following the Union of the Crowns
    faciam quodlibet quod necesse est I'll do whatever it takes
    faciam ut mei memineris I'll make you remember me from Plautus, Persa IV.3–24 used by Russian hooligans as tattoo inscription
    facile princeps easily the first said of the acknowledged leader in some field, especially in the arts and humanities
    facilius est multa facere quam diu It is easier to do many things, than one thing consecutively Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria 1/12:7
    facio liberos ex liberis libris libraque "I make free adults out of children by means of books and a balance." motto of St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, and Santa Fe, New Mexico
    facta, non verba deeds, not words Frequently used as motto
    factum fieri infectum non potest It is impossible for a deed to be undone Terence, Phormio 5/8:45
    falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus false in one, false in all A Roman legal principle indicating that a witness who willfully falsifies one matter is not credible on any matter. The underlying motive for attorneys to impeach opposing witnesses in court: the principle discredits the rest of their testimony if it is without corroboration.
    familia supra omnia family over everything frequently used as a family motto
    fas est et ab hoste doceri It is lawful to be taught even by an enemy Ovid, Metamorphoses 4:428
    febris amatoria fever of love Hypochromic anemia or chlorosis, once described as the "fever of love", which was believed to stem from the yearning for passion in virgins. First written about in 1554 by the German physician Johannes Lange. Also known as "Disease of the Virgins". [59]
    feci quod potui, faciant meliora potentes I have done what I could let those who can do better. Slight variant ("quod potui feci") found in James Boswell's An Account of Corsica, there described as "a simple beautiful inscription on the front of Palazzo Tolomei at Siena". [60] Later, found in Henry Baerlein's introduction to his translation of The Diwan of Abul ʿAla by Abul ʿAla Al-Maʿarri (973–1057) [61] also in Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters, act 1. Also in Alfonso Moreno Espinosa, Compendio de Historia Universal, 5. ed. (Cádiz 1888).
    NN fecit NN made (this) a formula used traditionally in the author's signature by painters, sculptors, artisans, scribes etc. compare pinxit
    fecisti patriam diversis de gentibus unam "From differing peoples you have made one native land" Verse 63 from the poem De reditu suo by Rutilius Claudius Namatianus praising emperor Augustus. [62]
    felicior Augusto, melior Traiano "be more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan" ritual acclamation delivered to late Roman emperors
    Felicitas, Integritas Et Sapientia Happiness, Integrity and Knowledge The motto of Oakland Colegio Campestre school through which Colombia participates of NASA Educational Programs
    felix culpa fortunate fault from the "Exsultet" of the Catholic liturgy for the Easter Vigil
    felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas happy is he who can ascertain the causes of things Virgil. "Rerum cognoscere causas" is the motto of the London School of Economics, University of Sheffield, and University of Guelph.
    felo de se felon from himself archaic legal term for one who commits suicide, referring to early English common law punishments, such as land seizure, inflicted on those who killed themselves
    fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt men generally believe what they want to People's beliefs are shaped largely by their desires. Julius Caesar, The Gallic War 3.18
    festina lente hurry slowly An oxymoronic motto of Augustus. It encourages proceeding quickly, but calmly and cautiously. Equivalent to "more haste, less speed". Motto of the Madeira School, McLean, Virginia and Berkhamsted School, Berkhamsted, England, United Kingdom
    festinare nocet, nocet et cunctatio saepe tempore quaeque suo qui facit, ille sapit. it is bad to hurry, and delay is often as bad the wise person is the one who does everything in its proper time. Ovid [63]
    fiat iustitia et pereat mundus let justice be done, though the world shall perish motto of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
    fiat justitia ruat caelum let justice be done, should the sky fall attributed to Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
    fiat lux let there be light from the Genesis, "dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux" ("and God said: 'Let there be light', and there was light.") frequently used as the motto of schools.
    fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum be it done to me according to thy word Virgin Mary's response to the Annunciation
    fiat panis let there be bread Motto of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
    fiat voluntas Dei May God's will be done motto of Robert May's School see the next phrase below
    fiat voluntas tua Thy will be done motto of Archbishop Richard Smith of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Edmonton quotation of the third petition of the Pater Noster (Our Father) prayer dictated by Jesus Christ and his response to the Father during the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane
    ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris fictions meant to please should approximate the truth Horace, Ars Poetica (338) advice presumably discounted by the magical realists
    Fidei Defensor (Fid Def) or (fd) Defender of the Faith A title given to King Henry VIII of England by Pope Leo X on 17 October 1521, before Henry broke from the Roman Church and founded the Church of England. British monarchs continue to use the title, which is still inscribed on all British coins, and usually abbreviated.
    fidem scit he knows the faith sometimes mistranslated to "keep the faith" when used in contemporary English writings of all kinds to convey a light-hearted wish for the reader's well-being
    fides qua creditur the faith by which it is believed Roman Catholic theological term for the personal faith that apprehends what is believed, contrasted with fides quae creditur, which is what is believed see next phrase below
    fides quae creditur the faith which is believed Roman Catholic theological term for the content and truths of the Faith or "the deposit of the Faith", contrasted with fides qua creditur, which is the personal faith by which the Faith is believed see previous phrase
    fides quaerens intellectum faith seeking understanding motto of St. Anselm Proslogion
    fidus Achates faithful Achates refers to a faithful friend from the name of Aeneas's faithful companion in Virgil's Aeneid
    filiae nostrae sicut anguli incisi similitudine templi may our daughters be as polished as the corners of the temple motto of Francis Holland School
    finis coronat opus the end crowns the work A major part of a work is properly finishing it. Motto of St. Mary's Catholic High School in Dubai, United Arab Emirates on the Coat of Arms of Seychelles and of the Amin Investment Bank
    finis vitae sed non amoris the end of life, but not of love unknown
    flagellum dei the scourge of God title for Attila the Hun, the ruthless invader of the Western Roman Empire
    flatus vocis [a or the] breath of voice a mere name, word, or sound without a corresponding objective reality expression used by the nominalists of universals and traditionally attributed to the medieval philosopher Roscelin of Compiègne
    flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo if I can not reach Heaven I will raise Hell Virgil, Aeneid, Book VII.312
    floreat Etona may Eton flourish Motto of Eton College, England, United Kingdom
    floreat nostra schola may our school flourish a common scholastic motto
    floruit (fl.) one flourished indicates the period when a historic person was most active or was accomplishing that for which he is famous may be used as a substitute when the dates of his birth and/or death are unknown.
    fluctuat nec mergitur she wavers and is not immersed Motto of the City of Paris, France
    fons et origo the spring and source also: "the fountainhead and beginning"
    fons sapientiae, verbum Dei the fount of knowledge is the word of God motto of Bishop Blanchet High School
    fons vitae caritas love is the fountain of life motto of Chisipite Senior School and Chisipite Junior School
    formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas teach the woods to re-echo "fair Amaryllis" Virgil, Eclogues, 1:5
    forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit perhaps even these things will be good to remember one day Virgil, Aeneid, Book 1, Line 203
    fortes fortuna adiuvat Fortune favours the bold The motto of the United States Marine Corps 3rd Marine Regiment
    fortes fortuna juvat Fortune favours the bold The motto of the Jutland Dragoon Regiment of Denmark
    fortes in fide strong in faith a common motto
    fortis cadere, cedere non potest the brave may fall, but can not yield motto on the Coat of Arms of the Fahnestock Family and of the Palmetto Guard of Charleston, South Carolina
    fortis est veritas truth is strong motto on the Coat of Arms of Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    fortis et liber strong and free motto of Alberta, Canada
    fortis in arduis strong in difficulties/adversary motto of the Municipal Borough of Middleton, from the Earl of Middleton and of Syed Ahmad Shaheed House of Army Burn Hall College in Abbottabad, Pakistan
    fortiter et fideliter bravely and faithfully a common motto
    fortiter in re, suaviter in modo resolute in execution, gentle in manner a common motto
    fortuna utaris et prudentia make use of your luck and your reason Motto on the Casino chips of Spielbanken Niedersachsen, Germany by Sebastian Peetz
    fortunae meae, multorum faber artisan of my fate and that of several others motto of Gatineau
    fraus omnia vitiat a legal principle: the occurrence or taint of fraud in a (legal) transaction entirely invalidates it
    fui quod es, eris quod sum I once was what you are, you will be what I am An epitaph that reminds the reader of the inevitability of death, as if to state: "Once I was alive like you are, and you will be dead as I am now." It was carved on the gravestones of some Roman military officers.
    fumus boni iuris presumption of sufficient legal basis a legal principle
    fundamenta inconcussa unshakable foundation
    Latin Translation Notes
    gaudia certaminis the joys of battle according to Cassiodorus, an expression used by Attila in addressing his troops prior to the 451 Battle of Châlons
    gaudeamus hodie let us rejoice today
    gaudeamus igitur therefore let us rejoice First words of an academic anthem used, among other places, in The Student Prince.
    gaudete in domino rejoice in the Lord Motto of Bishop Allen Academy
    gaudium in veritate joy in truth Motto of Campion School
    generalia specialibus non derogant general provisions enacted in later legislation do not detract from specific provisions enacted in earlier legislation A principle of statutory interpretation: If a matter falls under a specific provision in a statute enacted before a general provision enacted in a later statute, it is to be presumed that the legislature did not intend that the earlier specific provision be repealed, and the matter is governed by the earlier specific provision, not the more recent general one.
    genius loci spirit of place The unique, distinctive aspects or atmosphere of a place, such as those celebrated in art, stories, folk tales, and festivals. Originally, the genius loci was literally the protective spirit of a place, a creature usually depicted as a snake.
    generatim discite cultus Learn each field of study according to its kind. (Virgil, Georgics II.) Motto of the University of Bath.
    gens una sumus we are one people Motto of FIDE. Can be traced back to Claudian's poem De consulatu Stilichonis.
    gesta non verba deeds, not words Motto of James Ruse Agricultural High School.
    Gloria in excelsis Deo Glory to God in the Highest Often translated "Glory to God on High". The title and beginning of an ancient Roman Catholic doxology, the Greater Doxology. See also ad maiorem Dei gloriam.
    Gloria invidiam vicisti By your fame you have conquered envy Sallust, Bellum Jugurthum ("Jugurthine War") 10:2.
    gloria filiorum patres The glory of sons is their fathers (Proverbs17:6) Motto of Eltham College
    Gloria Patri Glory to the Father The beginning of the Lesser Doxology.
    gloriosus et liber glorious and free Motto of Manitoba
    gradatim ferociter by degrees, ferociously Motto of private spaceflight company Blue Origin, which officially treats "Step by step, ferociously" as the English translation
    gradibus ascendimus ascending by degrees Motto of Grey College, Durham
    Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit Conquered Greece in turn defeated its savage conqueror Horace Epistles 2.1
    Graecum est non legitur It is Greek (and therefore) it cannot be read. Most commonly from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar where Casca couldn't explain to Cassius what Cicero was saying because he was speaking Greek. The more common colloquialism would be: It's all Greek to me.
    grandescunt aucta labore By hard work, all things increase and grow Motto of McGill University
    gratia et scientia grace and learning Motto of Arundel School
    gratiae veritas naturae Truth through mercy and nature Motto of Uppsala University
    graviora manent heavier things remain Virgil Aeneid 6:84 more severe things await, the worst is yet to come
    Gravis Dulcis Immutabilis serious sweet immutable Title of a poem by James Elroy Flecker [64]
    gutta cavat lapidem [non vi sed saepe cadendo] a water drop hollows a stone [not by force, but by falling often] main phrase is from Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV, 10, 5. [65] expanded in the Middle Ages

    The imperative motto for the satisfaction of desire. "I need it, Here and Now"

    Latin Translation Notes
    labor ipse voluptas The pleasure is in the work itself. Motto of Leopold von Ranke (Manilius IV 155)
    labor omnia vincit Hard work conquers all. Popular as a motto derived from a phrase in Virgil's Eclogue (X.69: omnia vincit Amor – "Love conquers all") a similar phrase also occurs in his Georgics I.145.
    laborare pugnare parati sumus To work, (or) to fight we are ready Motto of the California Maritime Academy
    labore et honore By labour and honour
    laboremus pro patria Let us work for the fatherland Motto of the Carlsberg breweries
    laboris gloria Ludi Games are the glory of work, Motto of the Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall, UK
    lacrimae rerum The poignancy of things. Virgil, Aeneid 1:462
    lapsus lapse, slip, error involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking
    lapsus calami inadvertent typographical error, slip of the pen
    lapsus linguae inadvertent speech error, slip of the tongue
    lapsus memoriae slip of memory source of the term memory lapse
    latius est impunitum relinqui facinus nocentis (quam innocentem damnari) It is better to let the crime of the guilty go unpunished (than to condemn the innocent) Ulpian, Digest 5:6.
    lauda finem praise to the end Motto of Nottingham High School
    Laudatio Ejus Manet In Secula Seculorum His Praise Remains unto Ages of Ages Motto of Galway
    laudator temporis acti praiser of time past One who is discontent with the present and instead prefers things of the past ("the good old days"). In Horace's Ars Poetica, line 173 motto of HMS Veteran
    laudetur Jesus Christus Praise (Be) Jesus Christ Often used as a salutation, but also used after prayers or the reading of the gospel
    laus Deo praise be to God Inscription on the east side at the peak of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. motto of the Viscount of Arbuthnott and Sydney Grammar School title of a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier commemorating the passage of the 13th Amendment
    lectio brevior potior The shorter reading is the better A maxim in text criticism. Codified, but simultaneously refuted, by Marxist educators. [ citation needed ]
    lectio difficilior potior The more difficult reading is the stronger
    lectori salutem (L. S.,) greetings to the reader Often abbreviated to L.S., used as opening words for a letter
    lege artis according to the law of the art Denotes that a certain intervention is performed in a correct way. Used especially in a medical context. The 'art' referred to in the phrase is medicine.
    legem terrae the law of the land
    leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt, et moriuntur laws of man are born, live and die
    leges sine moribus vanae laws without morals [are] vain From Horace's Odes motto of the University of Pennsylvania
    legio patria nostra The Legion is our fatherland Motto of the French Foreign Legion
    legi, intellexi, et condemnavi I read, understood, and condemned.
    legis plenitudo charitas charity (love) is the fulfilment of the law Motto of Ratcliffe College, UK and of the Rosmini College, NZ
    legitime lawfully In Roman and civil law, a forced share in an estate the portion of the decedent's estate from which the immediate family cannot be disinherited. From the French héritier legitime (rightful heir).
    lex artis law of the skill The rules that regulate a professional duty.
    lex dei vitae lampas the law of God is the lamp of life Motto of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne
    lex ferenda the law that should be borne The law as it ought to be.
    lex hac edictali the law here proclaims The rule whereby a spouse cannot by deed inter vivos or bequeath by testament to his or her second spouse more than the amount of the smallest portion given or bequeathed to any child.
    lex in casu law in the event A law that only concerns one particular case. See law of the case.
    lex lata the law that has been borne The law as it is.
    lex loci law of the place
    lex non scripta law that has not been written Unwritten law, or common law
    lex orandi, lex credendi the law of prayer is the law of faith
    lex paciferat the law shall bring peace Motto of the European Gendarmerie Force
    lex parsimoniae law of succinctness also known as Occam's Razor
    lex rex the law [is] king A principle of government advocating a rule by law rather than by men. The phrase originated as a double entendre in the title of Samuel Rutherford's controversial book Lex, Rex (1644), which espoused a theory of limited government and constitutionalism.
    lex scripta written law Statutory law contrasted with lex non scripta
    lex talionis the law of retaliation Retributive justice (i.e., eye for an eye)
    libertas, justitia, veritas Liberty Justice Truth Motto of the Korea University and Freie Universität Berlin
    Libertas perfundet omnia luce Freedom will flood all things with light Motto of the University of Barcelona and the Complutense University of Madrid
    Libertas quae sera tamen freedom which [is] however late Liberty even when it comes late motto of Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Libertas Securitas Justitia Liberty Security Justice Motto of the Frontex
    libra (lb) balance scales Its abbreviation lb is used as a unit of weight, the pound.
    lignum crucis arbor scientiae The wood of the cross is the tree of knowledge School motto of Denstone College
    littera scripta manet The written word endures Attributed to Horace
    loco citato (lc) in the place cited More fully written in loco citato see also opere citato
    locum tenens place holder A worker who temporarily takes the place of another with similar qualifications, for example as a doctor or a member of the clergy usually shortened to locum.
    locus classicus a classic place The most typical or classic case of something quotation which most typifies its use.
    locus minoris resistentiae place of less resistance A medical term to describe a location on or in a body that offers little resistance to infection, damage, or injury. For example, a weakened place that tends to be reinjured.
    locus poenitentiae a place of repentance A legal term, it is the opportunity of withdrawing from a projected contract, before the parties are finally bound or of abandoning the intention of committing a crime, before it has been completed.
    locus standi A right to stand Standing in law (the right to have one's case in court)
    longissimus dies cito conditur even the longest day soon ends Pliny the Younger, Epistulae 9/36:4
    luce veritatis By the light of truth School motto of Queen Margaret College
    luceat lux vestra Let your light shine From Matthew Ch. 5 V. 16 popular as a school motto
    lucem sequimur We follow the light Motto of the University of Exeter
    luceo non uro I shine, not burn Motto of the Highland Scots Clan Mackenzie
    lucida sidera The shining stars Horace, Carmina 1/3:2
    luctor et emergo I struggle and emerge Motto of the Dutch province of Zeeland to denote its battle against the sea, and the Athol Murray College of Notre Dame
    Luctor, non mergor 'I struggle, but am not overwhelmed Motto of the Glass Family (Sauchie, Scotland) [73]
    lucus a non lucendo [it is] a grove by not being light From late 4th-century grammarian Honoratus Maurus, who sought to mock implausible word origins such as those proposed by Priscian. A pun based on the word lucus (dark grove) having a similar appearance to the verb lucere (to shine), arguing that the former word is derived from the latter word because of a lack of light in wooded groves. Often used as an example of absurd etymology, it derives from parum luceat (it does not shine [being darkened by shade]) by Quintilian in Institutio Oratoria.
    ludemus bene in compania We play well in groups Motto of the Barony of Marinus
    lupus est homo homini A man to a man is a wolf Plautus' adaptation of an old Roman proverb: homo homini lupus est ("man is a wolf to [his fellow] man"). In Asinaria, act II, scene IV, verse 89 [495 overall]. Lupus est homo homini, non homo, quom qualis sit non novit ("a man to a man is a wolf, not a man, when the other doesn't know of what character he is.") [74]
    lupus in fabula the wolf in the story With the meaning "speak of the wolf, and he will come" from Terence's play Adelphoe.
    lupus non mordet lupum a wolf does not bite a wolf
    lupus non timet canem latrantem a wolf is not afraid of a barking dog
    lux aeterna eternal light epitaph
    lux et lex light and law Motto of the Franklin & Marshall College and the University of North Dakota
    lux et veritas light and truth A translation of the Hebrew Urim and Thummim. Motto of several institutions, including Yale University.
    lux ex tenebris light from darkness Motto of the 67th Network Warfare Wing
    lux hominum vita light the life of man Motto of the University of New Mexico
    lux in Domino light in the Lord Motto of the Ateneo de Manila University
    lux in tenebris lucet The light that shines in the darkness Motto of Columbia University School of General Studies [75] Also: John 1:5.
    lux libertas light and liberty Motto of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Lux mentis Lux orbis Light of the mind, Light of the world Motto of Sonoma State University
    lux sit let there be light A more literal Latinization of the phrase the most common translation is fiat lux, from Latin Vulgate Bible phrase chosen for the Genesis line "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי-אוֹר" (And God said: 'Let there be light.' And there was light). Motto of the University of Washington.
    lux tua nos ducat Your light guides us
    lux, veritas, virtus light, truth, courage Motto of Northeastern University
    lux, vita, caritas light, life, love Motto of St John's College, Johannesburg
    Latin Translation Notes
    Macte animo! Generose puer sic itur ad astra Young, cheer up! This is the way to the skies. Motto of Academia da Força Aérea (Air Force Academy) of the Brazilian Air Force
    macte virtute sic itur ad astra those who excel, thus reach the stars or "excellence is the way to the stars" frequent motto from Virgil's Aeneid IX.641 (English, Dryden)
    magister dixit the teacher has said it Canonical medieval reference to Aristotle, precluding further discussion
    magister meus Christus Christ is my teacher common Catholic edict and motto of a Catholic private school, Andrean High School in Merrillville, Indiana
    Magna Carta Great Charter Set of documents from 1215 between Pope Innocent III, King John of England, and English barons.
    magna cum laude with great praise Common Latin honor, above cum laude and below summa cum laude
    magna di curant, parva neglegunt The gods care about great matters, but they neglect small ones Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2:167
    magna est vis consuetudinis great is the power of habit
    Magna Europa est patria nostra Greater Europe is Our Fatherland Political motto of pan-Europeanists
    magno cum gaudio with great joy
    magnum opus great work Said of someone's masterpiece
    magnum vectigal est parsimonia Economy is a great revenue Cicero, Paradoxa 6/3:49. Sometimes translated into English as "thrift (or frugality) is a great revenue (or income)", edited from its original subordinate clause: "O di immortales! non intellegunt homines, quam magnum vectigal sit parsimonia." (English: O immortal gods! Men do not understand what a great revenue is thrift. )
    maior e longinquo reverentia greater reverence from afar When viewed from a distance, everything is beautiful. Tacitus, Annales 1.47
    maiora premunt greater things are pressing Used to indicate that it is the moment to address more important, urgent, issues.
    mala fide in bad faith Said of an act done with knowledge of its illegality, or with intention to defraud or mislead someone. Opposite of bona fide.
    Mala Ipsa Nova Bad News Itself Motto of the inactive 495th Fighter Squadron, US Air Force
    mala tempora currunt bad times are upon us Also used ironically, e.g.: New teachers know all tricks used by pupils to copy from classmates? Oh, mala tempora currunt!.
    male captus bene detentus wrongly captured, properly detained An illegal arrest will not prejudice the subsequent detention/trial.
    Malo mori quam foedari Death rather than dishonour Motto of the inactive 34th Battalion (Australia), the Drimnagh Castle Secondary School
    Malo periculosam libertatem quam quietam servitutem I prefer dangerous liberty to peaceful slavery Attributed to the Count Palatine of Posen before the Polish Diet, cited in The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    malum discordiae apple of discord Alludes to the apple of Eris in the Judgement of Paris, the mythological cause of the Trojan War. It is also a pun based on the near-homonymous word malum (evil). The word for "apple" has a long ā vowel in Latin and the word for "evil" a short a vowel, but they are normally written the same.
    malum in se wrong in itself A legal term meaning that something is inherently wrong (cf. malum prohibitum).
    malum prohibitum wrong due to being prohibited A legal term meaning that something is only wrong because it is against the law.
    malum quo communius eo peius the more common an evil is, the worse it is
    manu forte literally translated means 'with a strong hand', often quoted as 'by strength of hand' Motto of the Clan McKay
    manibus date lilia plenis give lilies with full hands A phrase from Virgil's Aeneid, VI.883, mourning the death of Marcellus, Augustus' nephew. Quoted by Dante as he leaves Virgil in Purgatory, XXX.21, echoed by Walt Whitman in Leaves of Grass III, 6.
    manu militari with a military hand Using armed forces in order to achieve a goal
    manu propria (m.p.) with one's own hand With the implication of "signed by one's hand". Its abbreviated form is sometimes used at the end of typewritten or printed documents or official notices, directly following the name of the person(s) who "signed" the document exactly in those cases where there isn't an actual handwritten signature.
    manus manum lavat one hand washes the other famous quote from The Pumpkinification of Claudius, ascribed to Seneca the Younger. [76] It implies that one situation helps the other.
    manus multae cor unum many hands, one heart Motto of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity.
    manus nigra black hand
    marcet sine adversario virtus valor becomes feeble without an opponent Seneca the Younger, De Providentia 2:4. Also, translated into English as "[their] strength and courage droop without an antagonist" ("Of Providence" (1900) by Seneca, translated by Aubrey Stewart), [77] "without an adversary, prowess shrivels" (Moral Essays (1928) by Seneca, translated by John W, Basore) [78] and "prowess withers without opposition".
    mare clausum closed sea In law, a sea under the jurisdiction of one nation and closed to all others.
    Mare Ditat, Rosa Decorat The sea enriches, the rose adorns Motto of Montrose, Angus and HMS Montrose
    mare liberum free sea In law, a sea open to international shipping navigation.
    mare nostrum our sea A nickname given to the Mediterranean during the height of the Roman Empire, as it encompassed the entire coastal basin.
    Mater Dei Mother of God A name given to describe Mary, who gave birth to Jesus, who is also called the Son of God.
    mater familias the mother of the family The female head of a family. See pater familias.
    mater lectionis mother reading
    Mater semper certa est the mother is always certain a Roman-law principle which has the power of praesumptio iuris et de iure, meaning that no counter-evidence can be made against this principle (literally: Presumed there is no counter evidence and by the law). Its meaning is that the mother of the child is always known.
    materia medica medical matter Branch of medical science concerned with the study of drugs used in the treatment of disease. Also, the drugs themselves.
    maxima debetur puero reverentia greatest deference is owed to the child from Juvenal's Satires XIV:47
    me vexat pede it annoys me at the foot Less literally, "my foot itches". Refers to a trivial situation or person that is being a bother, possibly in the sense of wishing to kick that thing away or, such as the commonly used expressions, a "pebble in one's shoe" or "nipping at one's heels".
    mea culpa through my fault Used in Christian prayers and confession to denote the inherently flawed nature of mankind can also be extended to mea maxima culpa (through my greatest fault).
    mea navis aëricumbens anguillis abundat My hovercraft is full of eels A relatively common recent Latinization inspired by the Dirty Hungarian Phrasebook sketch by Monty Python.
    media vita in morte sumus In the midst of our lives we die A well-known sequence, falsely attributed to Notker during the Middle Ages. It was translated by Cranmer and became a part of the burial service in the funeral rites of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
    Mediolanum captum est Milan has been captured Used erroneously as Mediolanum Capta Est by the black metal band Mayhem as an album title. Mediolanum was an ancient city in present-day Milan, Italy.
    Melius abundare quam deficere Better too much than not enough. Also used in elliptical form as melius abundare.
    meliora better things Carrying the connotation of "always better". The motto of the University of Rochester.
    Meliorare legem meliorare vitam est To improve the law is to improve life. The motto of the Salem/Roanoke County, Virginia Bar Association.
    Meliorem lapsa locavit He has planted one better than the one fallen. The motto of the Belmont County, Ohio, and the motto in the seal of the Northwest Territory
    Melita, domi adsum Honey, I'm home! A relatively common recent Latinization from the joke phrasebook Latin for All Occasions. Grammatically correct, but the phrase would be anachronistic in ancient Rome.
    memento mori remember that [you will] die remember your mortality
    memento vivere remember to live
    meminerunt omnia amantes lovers remember all
    memores acti prudentes futuri mindful of things done, aware of things to come Thus, both remembering the past and foreseeing the future. From the North Hertfordshire District Council coat of arms.
    Memoriae Sacrum (M.S.) Sacred to the
    Latin Translation Notes
    nanos gigantum humeris insidentes Dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants First recorded by John of Salisbury in the twelfth century and attributed to Bernard of Chartres. Also commonly known by the letters of Isaac Newton: "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants".
    nascentes morimur finisque ab origine pendet When we are born we die, our end is but the pendant of our beginning
    nasciturus pro iam nato habetur, quotiens de commodis eius agitur The unborn is deemed to have been born to the extent that his own inheritance is concerned Refers to a situation where an unborn child is deemed to be entitled to certain inheritance rights.
    natura abhorret a vacuo nature abhors vacuum Pseudo-explanation for why a liquid will climb up a tube to fill a vacuum, often given before the discovery of atmospheric pressure.
    natura artis magistra Nature is the teacher of art The name of the zoo in the centre of Amsterdam short: "Artis".
    natura nihil frustra facit nature does nothing in vain Cf. Aristotle: "οὐθὲν γάρ, ὡς φαμέν, μάτην ἡ φύσις ποιεῖ" (Politics I 2, 1253a9) and Leucippus: "Everything that happens does so for a reason and of necessity."
    natura non contristatur nature is not saddened That is, the natural world is not sentimental or compassionate. Derived by Arthur Schopenhauer from an earlier source.
    natura non facit saltum ita nec lex nature does not make a leap, thus neither does the law Shortened form of "sicut natura nil facit per saltum ita nec lex" (just as nature does nothing by a leap, so neither does the law), referring to both nature and the legal system moving gradually.
    natura non facit saltus nature makes no leaps A famous aphorism of Carl Linnaeus stating that all organisms bear relationships on all sides, their forms changing gradually from one species to the next. From Philosophia Botanica (1751).
    natura valde simplex est et sibi consona Nature is exceedingly simple and harmonious with itself Sir Isaac Newton's famous quote, defining foundation of all modern sciences. Can be found in his Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library, Cambridge, 1978 edition [87]
    naturalia non sunt turpia What is natural is not dirty Based on Servius' commentary on Virgil's Georgics (3:96): "turpis non est quia per naturam venit."
    naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret. You may drive out Nature with a pitchfork, yet she still will hurry back You must take the basic nature of something into account.
    – Horace, Epistles, Book I, epistle X, line 24.
    navigare necesse est, vivere non est necesse to sail is necessary to live is not necessary Attributed by Plutarch to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who, during a severe storm, commanded sailors to bring food from Africa to Rome. Translated from Plutarch's Greek "πλεῖν ἀνάγκη, ζῆν οὐκ ἀνάγκη".
    ne plus ultra nothing more beyond Also nec plus ultra or non plus ultra. A descriptive phrase meaning the best or most extreme example of something. The Pillars of Hercules, for example, were literally the nec plus ultra of the ancient Mediterranean world. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's heraldic emblem reversed this idea, using a depiction of this phrase inscribed on the Pillars – as plus ultra, without the negation. The Boston Musical Instrument Company engraved ne plus ultra on its instruments from 1869 to 1928 to signify that none were better. Non plus ultra is the motto of the Spanish exclave Melilla.
    ne puero gladium do not give a sword to a boy Never give dangerous tools to someone who is untrained to use them or too immature to understand the damage they can do.
    ne supra crepidam sutor iudicaret a shoemaker should not judge beyond the shoe see Sutor, ne ultra crepidam
    ne te quaesiveris extra do not seek outside yourself line from the Roman satirist Persius inscribed on the boulder to the right of Sir John Suckling in the painting of the aforementioned subject by Sir Anthony van Dyck (ca. 1638) and invoked by Ralph Waldo Emerson at the opening of his essay Self-Reliance (1841)
    Nec aspera terrent They are not terrified of the rough things They are not afraid of difficulties. Less literally "Difficulties be damned." Motto for 27th Infantry Regiment (United States) and the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment. Nec = not aspera = rough ones/things terrent = they terrify / do terrify / are terrifying.
    Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus (inciderit) That a god not intervene, unless a knot show up that be worthy of such an untangler "When the miraculous power of God is necessary, let it be resorted to: when it is not necessary, let the ordinary means be used." From Horace's Ars Poetica as a caution against deus ex machina.
    nec dextrorsum, nec sinistrorsum Neither to the right nor to the left Do not get distracted. Motto for Bishop Cotton Boys' School and the Bishop Cotton Girls' School, both located in Bangalore, India.
    nec spe, nec metu without hope, without fear
    nec tamen consumebatur and yet it was not consumed Refers to the Burning Bush of Exodus 3:2. Motto of many Presbyterian churches throughout the world.
    nec temere nec timide neither reckless nor timid Motto of the Dutch 11th Air Manoeuvre Brigade and the city of Gdańsk, Poland
    nec vi, nec clam, nec precario Without permission, without secrecy, without interruption The law of adverse possession
    neca eos omnes, Deus suos agnoscet kill them all, God will know his own alternate rendition of Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius. by Arnaud Amalric
    necesse est aut imiteris aut oderis you must either imitate or loathe the world Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 7:7
    necessitas etiam timidos fortes facit need makes even the timid brave Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 58:19
    nemine contradicente (nem. con., N.C.D.) with no one speaking against Less literally, "without dissent". Used especially in committees, where a matter may be passed nem. con., or unanimously, or with unanimous consent.
    nemo contra Deum nisi Deus ipse No one against God except God himself From Goethe's autobiography From my Life: Poetry and Truth, p. 598
    nemo dat quod non habet no one gives what he does not have Thus, "none can pass better title than they have"
    nemo est supra legem nobody is above the law or nemo est supra leges, nobody is above the laws
    Nemo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divino umquam fuit No great man ever existed who did not enjoy some portion of divine inspiration From Cicero's De Natura Deorum, Book 2, chapter LXVI, 167 [88]
    nemo iudex in causa sua no man shall be a judge in his own cause Legal principle that no individual can preside over a hearing in which he holds a specific interest or bias
    nemo malus felix peace visits not the guilty mind Also translated to "no rest for the wicked." Refers to the inherent psychological issues that plague bad/guilty people.
    nemo me impune lacessit No one provokes me with impunity Motto of the Order of the Thistle, and consequently of Scotland, found stamped on the milled edge of certain British pound sterling coins. It is the motto of the Montressors in the Edgar Allan Poe short story "The Cask of Amontillado". Motto of the San Beda College Beta Sigma Fraternity.
    nemo mortalium omnibus horis sapit No mortal is wise at all times The wisest may make mistakes.
    nemo nisi per amicitiam cognoscitur No one learns except by friendship Used to imply that one must like a subject in order to study it.
    nemo propheta in patria (sua) no man is a prophet in his own land Concept present in all four Gospels ( Matthew 13:57 Mark 6:4 Luke 4:24 John 4:44 ).
    nemo saltat sobrius Nobody dances sober The short and more common form of Nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit, "Nobody dances sober, unless he happens to be insane," a quote from Cicero (from the speech Pro Murena).
    nemo tenetur se ipsum accusare no one is bound to accuse himself (the right to silence) A maxim banning mandatory self-incrimination. Near-synonymous with accusare nemo se debet nisi coram Deo. Similar phrases include: nemo tenetur armare adversarium contra se (no one is bound to arm an opponent against himself), meaning that a defendant is not obligated to in any way assist the prosecutor to his own detriment nemo tenetur edere instrumenta contra se (no one is bound to produce documents against himself, meaning that a defendant is not obligated to provide materials to be used against himself (this is true in Roman law and has survived in modern criminal law, but no longer applies in modern civil law) and nemo tenere prodere se ipsum (no one is bound to betray himself), meaning that a defendant is not obligated to testify against himself.
    neque semper arcum tendit Apollo nor does Apollo always keep his bow drawn Horace, Carmina 2/10:19-20. The same image appears in a fable of Phaedrus.
    Ne quid nimis Nothing in excess
    nervos belli, pecuniam infinitam Endless money forms the sinews of war In war, it is essential to be able to purchase supplies and to pay troops (as Napoleon put it, "An army marches on its stomach").
    nihil ad rem nothing to do with the point That is, in law, irrelevant and/or inconsequential.
    nihil boni sine labore nothing achieved without hard work Motto of Palmerston North Boys' High School
    nihil dicit he says nothing In law, a declination by a defendant to answer charges or put in a plea.
    nihil enim lacrima citius arescit nothing dries sooner than a tear Pseudo-Cicero, Ad Herrenium, 2/31:50
    nihil humanum mihi alienum nothing human is alien to me Adapted from Terence's Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor), homo sum humani a me nihil alienum puto ("I am a human being nothing human is strange to me"). Sometimes ending in est.
    nihil in intellectu nisi prius in sensu nothing in the intellect unless first in sense The guiding principle of empiricism, and accepted in some form by Aristotle, Aquinas, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, however, added nisi intellectus ipse (except the intellect itself).
    nihil nimis nothing too Or nothing to excess. Latin translation of the inscription of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.
    nihil novi nothing of the new Or just "nothing new". The phrase exists in two versions: as nihil novi sub sole (nothing new under the sun), from the Vulgate, and as nihil novi nisi commune consensu (nothing new unless by the common consensus), a 1505 law of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and one of the cornerstones of its Golden Liberty.
    nihil obstat nothing prevents A notation, usually on a title page, indicating that a Roman Catholic censor has reviewed the book and found nothing objectionable to faith or morals in its content. See also imprimatur.
    nihil sine Deo nothing without God Motto of the Kingdom of Romania, while ruled by the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty (1878–1947).
    nihil ultra nothing beyond Motto of St. Xavier's College, Calcutta
    nil admirari be surprised at nothing Or "nihil admirari". Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes (3,30), Horace, Epistulae (1,6,1), and Seneca, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, (8,5). Motto of the Fitzgibbon family. See John FitzGibbon, 1st Earl of Clare
    nil desperandum nothing must be despaired at That is, "never despair".
    nil igitur fieri de nilo posse fatendumst nothing, therefore, we must confess, can be made from nothing From Lucretius' De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things), I.205
    Nil igitur mors est ad nos Death, therefore, is nothing to us From Lucretius' De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things), III.831
    nil mortalibus ardui est nothing is impossible for humankind From Horace's Odes. Motto of Rathkeale College, New Zealand and Brunts School, England.
    nil nisi bonum (about the dead say) nothing unless (it is) good Short for nil nisi bonum de mortuis dicere. That is, "Don't speak ill of anyone who has died". Also "Nil magnum nisi bonum" (nothing is great unless good), motto of St Catherine's School, Toorak, Pennant Hills High School and Petit Seminaire Higher Secondary School.
    nil nisi malis terrori no terror, except to the bad Motto of The King's School, Macclesfield
    nil per os, rarely non per os (n.p.o.) nothing through the mouth Medical shorthand indicating that oral foods and fluids should be withheld from the patient.
    nil satis nisi optimum nothing [is] enough unless [it is] the best Motto of Everton F.C., residents of Goodison Park, Liverpool.
    nil sine labore nothing without labour Motto of many schools
    nil sine numine nothing without the divine will Or "nothing without providence". State motto of Colorado, adopted in 1861. Probably derived from Virgil's Aeneid Book II, line 777, "non haec sine numine divum eveniunt" (these things do not come to pass without the will of Heaven). See also numen.
    nil volentibus arduum Nothing [is] arduous for the willing Nothing is impossible for the willing
    nisi Dominus frustra if not the Lord, [it is] in vain That is, "everything is in vain without God". Summarized from Psalm 127 (126 Vulgate), nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum in vanum laboraverunt qui aedificant eam nisi Dominus custodierit civitatem frustra vigilavit qui custodit (unless the Lord builds the house, they work on a useless thing who build it unless the Lord guards the community, he keeps watch in vain who guards it) widely used motto.
    nisi paria non pugnant it takes two to make a fight Irascetur aliquis: tu contra beneficiis prouoca cadit statim simultas ab altera parte deserta nisi paria non pugnant. (If any one is angry with you, meet his anger by returning benefits for it: a quarrel which is only taken up on one side falls to the ground: it takes two men to fight.) Seneca the Younger, De Ira (On Anger): Book 2, cap. 34, line 5.
    nisi prius unless previously In England, a direction that a case be brought up to Westminster for trial before a single judge and jury. In the United States, a court where civil actions are tried by a single judge sitting with a jury, as distinguished from an appellate court.
    nitimur in vetitum We strive for the forbidden From Ovid's Amores, III.4:17. It means that when we are denied of something, we will eagerly pursue the denied thing. Used by Friedrich Nietzsche in his Ecce Homo to indicate that his philosophy pursues what is forbidden to other philosophers.
    nobis bene, nemini male Good for us, Bad for no one Inscription on the old Nobistor [de] gatepost that divided Altona and St. Pauli
    nolens volens unwilling, willing That is, "whether unwillingly or willingly". Sometimes rendered volens nolens, aut nolens aut volens or nolentis volentis. Similar to willy-nilly, though that word is derived from Old English will-he nil-he ([whether] he will or [whether] he will not).
    noli me tangere do not touch me Commonly translated "touch me not". According to the Gospel of John, this was said by Jesus to Mary Magdalene after his resurrection.
    noli turbare circulos meos Do not disturb my circles! That is, "Don't upset my calculations!" Said by Archimedes to a Roman soldier who, despite having been given orders not to, killed Archimedes at the conquest of Syracuse, Sicily.
    nolle prosequi to be unwilling to prosecute A legal motion by a prosecutor or other plaintiff to drop legal charges, usually in exchange for a diversion program or out-of-court settlement.
    nolo contendere I do not wish to contend That is, "no contest". A plea that can be entered on behalf of a defendant in a court that states that the accused doesn't admit guilt, but will accept punishment for a crime. Nolo contendere pleas cannot be used as evidence in another trial.
    nomen amicitiae sic, quatenus expedit, haeret the name of friendship lasts just so long as it is profitable Petronius, Satyricon, 80.
    nomen dubium doubtful name A scientific name of unknown or doubtful application.
    nomen est omen the name is a sign Thus, "true to its name".
    nomen nescio (N.N.) I do not know the name Thus, the name or person in question is unknown.
    nomen nudum naked name A purported scientific name that does not fulfill the proper formal criteria and therefore cannot be used unless it is subsequently proposed correctly.
    non auro, sed ferro, recuperanda est patria Not gold, but iron redeems the native land According to some Roman this sentence was said by Marcus Furius Camillus to Brennus, the chief of the Gauls, after he demanded more gold from the citizens of the recently sacked Rome in 390 BC.
    non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro liberty is not well sold for all the gold Motto of Republic of Ragusa, inscribed over the gates of St. Lawrence Fortress. From Gualterus Anglicus's version of Aesop's fable "The Dog and the Wolf".
    non bis in idem not twice in the same thing A legal principle forbidding double jeopardy.
    non canimus surdis, respondent omnia silvae we sing not to the deaf the trees echo every word Virgil, Eclogues 10:8
    non causa pro causa not the cause for the cause Also known as the "questionable cause" or "false cause". Refers to any logical fallacy where a cause is incorrectly identified.
    non compos mentis not in control of the mind See compos mentis. Also rendered non compos sui (not in control of himself). Samuel Johnson, author of the first English dictionary, theorized that the word nincompoop may derive from this phrase.
    non constat it is not certain Used to explain scientific phenomena and religious advocations, for example in medieval history, for rulers to issue a 'Non Constat' decree, banning the worship of a holy figure. In legal context, occasionally a backing for nulling information that was presented by an attorney. Without any tangible proof, Non constat information is difficult to argue for.
    non ducor, duco I am not led I lead Motto of São Paulo city, Brazil. See also pro Brasilia fiant eximia.
    non est factum it is not [my] deed a doctrine in contract law that allows a signing party to escape performance of the agreement. A claim of "non est factum" means that the signature on the contract was signed by mistake, without knowledge of its meaning, but was not done so negligently. A successful plea would make the contract void ab initio.
    non est princeps super leges, sed leges supra principem the prince is not above the laws, but the law is above the prince. Pliny the Younger, Panegyricus 65:1.
    non extinguetur shall not be extinguished Motto of the Society of Antiquaries of London accompanying their Lamp of knowledge emblem
    non facias malum ut inde fiat bonum you should not make evil in order that good may be made from it More simply, "don't do wrong to do right". The direct opposite of the phrase "the ends justify the means".
    non hos quaesitum munus in usus A gift sought for no such purpose Virgil, Aeneid, 4:647, of the sword with which Dido will commit suicide. "Not for so dire an enterprise design’d." (Dryden trans. 1697) [89] "A gift asked for no use like this." (Mackail trans. 1885). [90] "Ne'er given for an end so dire." (Taylor trans. 1907) [91] "A gift not asked for use like this!" (Williams trans. 1910). [92] Quoted by Francis Bacon of the civil law, "not made for the countries it governeth".
    non impediti ratione cogitationis unencumbered by the thought process motto of radio show Car Talk
    non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt the laws depend not on being read, but on being understood
    non liquet it is not proven Also "it is not clear" or "it is not evident". A sometimes controversial decision handed down by a judge when they feel that the law is not complete.
    non loqui sed facere not talk but action Motto of the University of Western Australia's Engineering faculty student society.
    non mihi solum not for myself alone Motto of Anderson Junior College, Singapore.
    non ministrari sed ministrare not to be served, but to serve Motto of Wellesley College and Shimer College (from Matthew 20:28 in the Vulgate).
    non multa sed multum not quantity but quality Motto of the Daniel Pearl Magnet High School.
    Non nobis Domine Not to us (oh) Lord Christian hymn based on Psalm 115.
    non nobis nati 'Born not for ourselves' Motto of St Albans School (Hertfordshire)
    non nobis solum not for ourselves alone Appears in Cicero's De Officiis Book 1:22 in the form non nobis solum nati sumus (we are not born for ourselves alone). Motto of Lower Canada College, Montreal and University College, Durham University, and Willamette University.
    non numerantur, sed ponderantur they are not counted, but weighed Old saying. Paul Erdős (1913–1996), in The Man Who Loved Only Numbers by Paul Hoffman [93]
    non obstante veredicto not standing in the way of a verdict A judgment notwithstanding verdict, a legal motion asking the court to reverse the jury's verdict on the grounds that the jury could not have reached such a verdict reasonably.
    non olet it doesn't smell See pecunia non olet.
    non omnia possumus omnest not everyone can do everything Virgil, Eclogues 8:63 (and others).
    non omnis moriar I shall not all die Horace, Carmina 3/30:6. "Not all of me will die", a phrase expressing the belief that a part of the speaker will survive beyond death.
    non plus ultra nothing further beyond the ultimate. See also 'ne plus ultra'
    non possumus not possible
    non possunt primi esse omnes omni in tempore not everyone can occupy the first rank forever (It is impossible always to excel) Decimus Laberius.
    non progredi est regredi to not go forward is to go backward
    non prosequitur he does not proceed A judgment in favor of a defendant when the plaintiff failed to take the necessary steps in an action within the time allowed.
    non scholae sed vitae [We learn] not for school but for life An inversion of non vitae sed scholae now used as a school motto
    non qui parum habet, set qui plus cupit, pauper est It is not he who has little, but he who wants more, who is the pauper. Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 2:6.
    non quis sed quid not who but what Used in the sense "what matters is not who says it but what he says" – a warning against ad hominem arguments frequently used as motto, including that of Southwestern University.
    non sequitur it does not follow In general, a comment which is absurd due to not making sense in its context (rather than due to being inherently nonsensical or internally inconsistent), often used in humor. As a logical fallacy, a conclusion that does not follow from a premise.
    non serviam I will not serve Possibly derived from a Vulgate mistranslation of the Book of Jeremiah. Commonly used in literature as Satan's statement of disobedience to God, though in the original context the quote is attributed to Israel, not Satan.
    non sibi Not for self A slogan used by many schools and universities.
    non sibi, sed patriae Not for self, but for country Engraved on the doors of the United States Naval Academy chapel motto of the USS Halyburton (FFG-40) .
    non sibi, sed suis Not for one's self but for one's own A slogan used by many schools and universities.
    non sibi, sed omnibus Not for one's self but for all A slogan used by many schools and universities.
    non sic dormit, sed vigilat Sleeps not but is awake Martin Luther on mortality of the soul.
    non silba, sed anthar Deo vindice Not for self, but for others God will vindicate A slogan used by the Ku Klux Klan
    non sum qualis eram I am not such as I was Or "I am not the kind of person I once was". Expresses a change in the speaker. Horace, Odes 4/1:3.
    non teneas aurum totum quod splendet ut aurum Do not hold as gold all that shines as gold Also, "All that glitters is not gold." Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice.
    non timebo mala I will fear no evil It is possibly a reference to Psalm 23. Printed on the Colt in Supernatural.
    non vestra sed vos Not yours but you Motto of St Chad's College, Durham.
    non vitae sed scholae [We learn] not for life but for schooltime From a passage of occupatio in Seneca the Younger's moral letters to Lucilius, [94] wherein Lucilius is given the argument that too much literature fails to prepare students for life
    non vi, sed verbo Not by force, but by the word [of God] From Martin Luther's "Invocavit Sermons" preached in March, 1522, against the Zwickau prophets unrest in Wittenberg [95] later echoed in the Augsburg Confession as . sine vi humana, sed Verbo: bishops should act "without human force, but through the Word". [96]
    nosce te ipsum know thyself From Cicero, based on the Greek γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton), inscribed on the pronaos of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, according to the Greek periegetic writer Pausanias (10.24.1). A non-traditional Latin rendering, temet nosce (thine own self know), is translated in The Matrix as "know thyself".
    noscitur a sociis a word is known by the company it keeps In statutory interpretation, when a word is ambiguous, its meaning may be determined by reference to the rest of the statute.
    noster nostri Literally "Our ours" Approximately "Our hearts beat as one."
    nota bene mark well That is, "please note" or "note it well".
    novus ordo seclorum new order of the ages From Virgil. Motto on the Great Seal of the United States. Similar to Novus Ordo Mundi (New World Order).
    nulla dies sine linea Not a day without a line drawn Pliny the Elder attributes this maxim to Apelles, an ancient Greek artist.
    nulla dies umquam memori vos eximet aevo No day shall erase you from the memory of time From Virgil's Aeneid, Book IX, line 447, on the episode of Nisus and Euryalus.
    nulla poena sine lege no penalty without a law Refers to the legal principle that one cannot be punished for doing something that is not prohibited by law, and is related to Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali.
    nulla quaestio there is no question, there is no issue
    nulla tenaci invia est via For the tenacious, no road is impassable Motto of the Dutch car builder Spyker.
    nullam rem natam no thing born That is, "nothing". It has been theorized that this expression is the origin of Italian nulla, French rien, and Spanish and Portuguese nada, all with the same meaning.
    nulli secundus second to none Motto of the Coldstream Guards and Nine Squadron Royal Australian Corps of Transport and the Pretoria Armour Regiment.
    nullius in verba On the word of no man Motto of the Royal Society.
    nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali no crime, no punishment without a previous penal law Legal principle meaning that one cannot be penalised for doing something that is not prohibited by law penal law cannot be enacted retroactively.
    nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit There has been no great wisdom without an element of madness
    numen lumen God our light The motto of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The motto of Elon University.
    numerus clausus closed number A method to limit the number of students who may study at a university.
    nunc aut nunquam now or never Motto of the Korps Commandotroepen, Dutch elite special forces.
    nunc dimittis now you send beginning of the Song of Simeon, from the Gospel of Luke.
    nunc est bibendum now is the time to drink Carpe-Diem-type phrase from the Odes of Horace, Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus (Now is the time to drink, now the time to dance footloose upon the earth). Used as a slogan by Michelin and the origin of the Michelin Man's name Bibendum.
    nunc pro tunc now for then Something that has retroactive effect, is effective from an earlier date.
    nunc scio quid sit amor now I know what love is From Virgil, Eclogues VIII.
    nunquam minus solus quam cum solus never less alone than when alone
    nunquam non paratus never unprepared, ever ready, always ready frequently used as motto
    nunquam obliviscar never forget
    Latin Translation Notes
    O Deus ego amo te O God I Love You attributed to Saint Francis Xavier
    O fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint, agricolas The farmers would count themselves lucky, if only they knew how good they had it from Virgil in Georgics, 458
    o homines ad servitutem paratos Men ready to be slaves! attributed (in Tacitus, Annales, III, 65) to the Roman Emperor Tiberius, in disgust at the servile attitude of Roman senators said of those who should be leaders but instead slavishly follow the lead of others
    O tempora, o mores! Oh, the times! Oh, the morals! also translated "What times! What customs!" from Cicero, Catilina I, 2
    O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti O tyrant Titus Tatius, what terrible calamities you brought onto yourself! from Quintus Ennius, Annales (104), considered an example of a Latin tongue-twister
    Obedientia civium urbis felicitas The obedience of the citizens makes us a happy city Motto of Dublin
    obiit (ob.) one died "He/she died", inscription on gravestones ob. also sometimes stands for obiter (in passing or incidentally)
    obit anis, abit onus The old woman dies, the burden is lifted Arthur Schopenhauer
    obiter dictum a thing said in passing in law, an observation by a judge on some point of law not directly relevant to the case before him, and thus neither requiring his decision nor serving as a precedent, but nevertheless of persuasive authority. In general, any comment, remark or observation made in passing
    obliti privatorum, publica curate Forget private affairs, take care of public ones Roman political saying which reminds that common good should be given priority over private matters for any person having a responsibility in the State
    obscuris vera involvens the truth being enveloped by obscure things from Virgil
    obscurum per obscurius the obscure by means of the more obscure An explanation that is less clear than what it tries to explain synonymous with ignotum per ignotius
    obtineo et teneo to obtain and to keep motto
    obtorto collo with a twisted neck unwillingly
    oculus dexter (O.D.) right eye Ophthalmologist shorthand
    oculus sinister (O.S.) left eye
    oderint dum metuant let them hate, so long as they fear favorite saying of Caligula, attributed originally to Lucius Accius, Roman tragic poet (170 BC)
    odi et amo I hate and I love opening of Catullus 85 the entire poem reads, "odi et amo quare id faciam fortasse requiris / nescio sed fieri sentio et excrucior" (I hate and I love. Why do I do this, you perhaps ask. / I do not know, but I feel it happening to me and I am burning up.)
    odi profanum vulgus et arceo I hate the unholy rabble and keep them away Horace, Carmina III, 1
    odium theologicum theological hatred name for the special hatred generated in theological disputes
    oleum camino (pour) oil on the fire from Erasmus' (1466–1536) collection of annotated Adagia
    omne ignotum pro magnifico every unknown thing [is taken] for great or "everything unknown appears magnificent" The source is Tacitus: Agricola, Book 1, 30 where the sentence ends with 'est'. The quotation is found in Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes short story "The Red-Headed League" (1891) where the 'est' is missing.
    omne initium difficile est every beginning is difficult
    omne vivum ex ovo every living thing is from an egg foundational concept of modern biology, opposing the theory of spontaneous generation
    Omnes homines sunt asini vel homines et asini sunt asini All men are donkeys or men and donkeys are donkeys a sophisma proposed and solved by Albert of Saxony (philosopher)
    omnes vulnerant, postuma necat, or, omnes feriunt, ultima necat all [the hours] wound, last one kills usual in clocks, reminding the reader of death
    omnia cum deo all with God motto for Mount Lilydale Mercy College, Lilydale, Victoria, Australia
    omnia dicta fortiora si dicta Latina everything said [is] stronger if said in Latin or "everything sounds more impressive when said in Latin" a more common phrase with the same meaning is quidquid Latine dictum sit altum videtur (whatever said in Latin, seems profound)
    omnia in mensura et numero et pondere disposuisti Thou hast ordered all things in measure, and number, and weight. Book of Wisdom, 11:21
    Omnia mea mecum porto All that is mine I carry with me is a quote that Cicero ascribes to Bias of Priene
    omnia mutantur, nihil interit everything changes, nothing perishes Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD), Metamorphoses, book XV, line 165
    omnia omnibus all things to all men 1 Corinthians 9:22
    si omnia ficta if all (the words of poets) is fiction Ovid, Metamorphoses, book XIII, lines 733–4: "si non omnia vates ficta"
    omnia vincit amor love conquers all Virgil (70 BC – 19 BC), Eclogue X, line 69
    omnia munda mundis everything [is] pure to the pure [men] from The New Testament
    omnia praesumuntur legitime facta donec probetur in contrarium all things are presumed to be lawfully done, until it is shown [to be] in the reverse in other words, "innocent until proven guilty"
    omnia sponte fluant absit violentia rebus everything should flow by itself, force should be absent "let it go"
    omnis vir enim sui Every man for himself!
    omnibus idem the same to all motto of Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, usually accompanied by a sun, which shines for (almost) everyone
    omnibus locis fit caedes There is slaughter everywhere (in every place) Julius Caesar's The Gallic War, 7.67
    omnis traductor traditor every translator is a traitor every translation is a corruption of the original the reader should take heed of unavoidable imperfections
    omnis vir tigris everyone a tiger motto of the 102nd Intelligence Wing
    omnium gatherum gathering of all miscellaneous collection or assortment "gatherum" is English, and the term is used often used facetiously
    onus probandi burden of proof
    onus procedendi burden of procedure burden of a party to adduce evidence that a case is an exception to the rule
    opera omnia all works collected works of an author
    opera posthuma posthumous works works published after the author's death
    operari sequitur esse act of doing something follows the act of being scholastic phrase, used to explain that there is no possible act if there is not being: being is absolutely necessary for any other act
    opere citato (op. cit.) in the work that was cited used in academic works when referring again to the last source mentioned or used
    opere et veritate in action and truth doing what you believe is morally right through everyday actions
    opere laudato (op. laud.) See opere citato
    operibus anteire leading the way with deeds to speak with actions instead of words
    ophidia in herba a snake in the grass any hidden danger or unknown risk
    opinio juris sive necessitatis an opinion of law or necessity a belief that an action was undertaken because it was a legal necessity source of customary law
    opus anglicanum English work fine embroidery, especially used to describe church vestments
    Opus Dei The Work of God Catholic organisation
    ora et labora pray and work This principle of the Benedictine monasteries reads in full: "Ora et labora (et lege), Deus adest sine mora." "Pray and work (and read), God is there without delay" (or to keep the rhyme: "Work and pray, and God is there without delay")
    ora pro nobis pray for us "Sancta Maria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis pecatoribus" Brazilian name for Pereskia aculeata
    orando laborando by praying, by working motto of Rugby School
    oratio recta direct speech expressions from Latin grammar
    oratio obliqua indirect speech
    orbis non sufficit the world does not suffice or the world is not enough from Satires of Juvenal (Book IV/10), referring to Alexander the Great James Bond's adopted family motto in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service it made a brief appearance in the film adaptation of the same name and was later used as the title of the nineteenth James Bond film, The World Is Not Enough.
    orbis unum one world seen in The Legend of Zorro
    ordo ab chao out of chaos, comes order one of the oldest mottos of Craft Freemasonry. [97]
    (oremus) pro invicem (Let us pray), one for the other let us pray for each other Popular salutation for Roman Catholic clergy at the beginning or ending of a letter or note. Usually abbreviated OPI. ("Oremus" used alone is just "let us pray").
    orta recens quam pura nites newly risen, how brightly you shine Motto of New South Wales
    Latin Translation Notes
    qua definitione by virtue of definition Thus: "by definition" variant of per definitionem sometimes used in German-speaking countries. Occasionally misrendered as "qua definitionem".
    qua patet orbis as far as the world extends Motto of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps
    quae non posuisti, ne tollas do not take away what you did not put in place Plato, Laws
    quae non prosunt singula multa iuvant what alone is not useful helps when accumulated Ovid, Remedia amoris
    quaecumque sunt vera whatsoever is true frequently used as motto taken from Philippians 4:8 of the Bible
    quaecumque vera doce me teach me whatsoever is true motto of St. Joseph's College, Edmonton at the University of Alberta
    quaere to seek Or "you might ask. " Used to suggest doubt or to ask one to consider whether something is correct. Often introduces rhetorical or tangential questions.
    quaerite primum regnum Dei seek ye first the kingdom of God Also quaerite primo regnum dei frequently used as motto
    qualis artifex pereo As what kind of artist do I perish? Or "What a craftsman dies in me!" Attributed to Nero in Suetonius' De vita Caesarum
    Qualitas potentia nostra Quality is our might motto of Finnish Air Force
    quam bene non quantum how well, not how much motto of Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada
    quam bene vivas referre (or refert), non quam diu it is how well you live that matters, not how long Seneca, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium CI (101)
    quamdiu (se) bene gesserit as long as he shall have behaved well (legal Latin) I.e., "[while on] good behavior." So for example the Act of Settlement 1701 stipulated that judges' commissions are valid quamdiu se bene gesserint (during good behaviour). (Notice the different singular, "gesserit", and plural, "gesserint", forms.) It was from this phrase that Frank Herbert extracted the name for the Bene Gesserit sisterhood in the Dune novels.
    quantocius quantotius the sooner, the better or, as quickly as possible
    quantum libet (q.l.) as much as pleases medical shorthand for "as much as you wish"
    quantum sufficit (qs) as much as is enough medical shorthand for "as much as needed" or "as much as will suffice"
    quaque hora (qh) every hour medical shorthand also quaque die (qd), "every day", quaque mane (qm), "every morning", and quaque nocte (qn), "every night"
    quare clausum fregit wherefore he broke the close An action of trespass thus called, by reason the writ demands the person summoned to answer to wherefore he broke the close (quare clausum fregit), i.e. why he committed such a trespass.
    quater in die (qid) four times a day medical shorthand
    quem deus vult perdere, dementat prius Whom the gods would destroy, they first make insane
    quem di diligunt adulescens moritur he whom the gods love dies young Other translations of diligunt include "prize especially" or "esteem". From Plautus, Bacchides, IV, 7, 18. In this comic play, a sarcastic servant says this to his aging master. The rest of the sentence reads: dum valet sentit sapit ("while he is healthy, perceptive and wise").
    questio quid iuris I ask what law? from the Summoner's section of Chaucer's General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales, line 648
    qui audet adipiscitur Who Dares Wins The motto of the SAS, of the British Army
    qui bene cantat bis orat he who sings well praises twice from St. Augustine of Hippo's commentary on Psalm 73, verse 1: Qui enim cantat laudem, non solum laudat, sed etiam hilariter laudat ("He who sings praises, not only praises, but praises joyfully")
    qui bono who with good common misspelling of the Latin phrase cui bono ("who benefits?")
    quibuscum(que) viis (and) by whatever ways possible Used by Honoré de Balzac in several works, [106] including Illusions perdues and Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes.
    qui docet in doctrina he that teacheth, on teaching Motto of the University of Chester. A less literal translation is "Let those who teach, teach" or "Let the teacher teach".
    qui habet aures audiendi audiat he who has ears to hear, let him hear "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" Mark Mark 4:9
    qui me tangit, vocem meam audit who touches me, hears my voice common inscription on bells
    qui tacet consentire videtur he who is silent is taken to agree Thus, silence gives consent. Sometimes accompanied by the proviso "ubi loqui debuit ac potuit", that is, "when he ought to have spoken and was able to". Pope Boniface VII in Decretale di Bonifacio VIII, Libro V, Tit. 12, reg. 43 AD 1294
    qui prior est tempore potior est jure Who is first in point of time is stronger in right As set forth in the "Property Law" casebook written by Jesse Dukeminier, which is generally used to teach first year law students.
    qui tam pro domino rege quam pro se ipso in hac parte sequitur he who brings an action for the king as well as for himself Generally known as 'qui tam,' it is the technical legal term for the unique mechanism in the federal False Claims Act that allows persons and entities with evidence of fraud against federal programs or contracts to sue the wrongdoer on behalf of the Government.
    qui totum vult totum perdit he who wants everything loses everything Attributed to Publilius Syrus
    qui transtulit sustinet he who transplanted still sustains Or "he who brought us across still supports us", meaning God. State motto of Connecticut. Originally written as sustinet qui transtulit in 1639.
    quia suam uxorem etiam suspicione vacare vellet because he should wish his wife to be free even from any suspicion Attributed to Julius Caesar by Plutarch, Caesar 10. Translated loosely as "because even the wife of Caesar may not be suspected". At the feast of Bona Dea, a sacred festival for females only, which was being held at the Domus Publica, the home of the Pontifex Maximus, Caesar, and hosted by his second wife, Pompeia, the notorious politician Clodius arrived in disguise. Caught by the outraged noblewomen, Clodius fled before they could kill him on the spot for sacrilege. In the ensuing trial, allegations arose that Pompeia and Clodius were having an affair, and while Caesar asserted that this was not the case and no substantial evidence arose suggesting otherwise, he nevertheless divorced, with this quotation as explanation.
    quid agis What are you doing? What's happening? What's going on? What's the news? What's up?
    quid est veritas What is truth? In the Vulgate translation of John 18:38, Pilate's question to Jesus (Greek: Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια). A possible answer is an anagram of the phrase: est vir qui adest, "it is the man who is here."
    quid novi ex Africa What of the new out of Africa? less literally, "What's new from Africa?" derived from an Aristotle quotation
    quid nunc What now? Commonly shortened to quidnunc. As a noun, a quidnunc is a busybody or a gossip. Patrick Campbell worked for The Irish Times under the pseudonym "Quidnunc".
    quid pro quo what for what Commonly used in English, it is also translated as "this for that" or "a thing for a thing". Signifies a favor exchanged for a favor. The traditional Latin expression for this meaning was do ut des ("I give, so that you may give").
    Quid rides?
    Mutato nomine de te fabula narratur.
    Why do you laugh? Change but the name, and the story is told of yourself. Horace, Satires, I. 1. 69.
    quidquid Latine dictum sit altum videtur whatever has been said in Latin seems deep Or "anything said in Latin sounds profound". A recent ironic Latin phrase to poke fun at people who seem to use Latin phrases and quotations only to make themselves sound more important or "educated". Similar to the less common omnia dicta fortiora si dicta Latina.
    quieta non movere don't move settled things
    quilibet potest renunciare juri pro se inducto anyone may renounce a law introduced for their own benefit Used in classical law to differentiate law imposed by the state for the benefit of a person in general, but by the state on behalf of them, and one imposed specifically that that person ought to have a say in whether the law is implemented.
    Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Who will guard the guards themselves? Commonly associated with Plato who in the Republic poses this question and from Juvenal's On Women, referring to the practice of having eunuchs guard women and beginning with the word sed ("but"). Usually translated less literally, as "Who watches the watchmen (or modern, 'watchers')?" This translation is a common epigraph, such as of the Tower Commission and Alan Moore's Watchmen comic book series.
    quis leget haec? Who will read this?
    quis separabit? Who will separate us? motto of Northern Ireland and of the Order of St Patrick
    quis ut Deus Who [is] as God? Usually translated "Who is like unto God?" Questions who would have the audacity to compare himself to a Supreme Being. It is a translation of the Hebrew name 'Michael' = Mi cha El Who like God מי/כ/ אל Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל ‎ (right to left).
    quo errat demonstrator where the prover errs A pun on "quod erat demonstrandum"
    quo fata ferunt where the fates bear us to motto of Bermuda
    quo non ascendam to what heights can I not rise? motto of Army Burn Hall College
    Quod verum tutum what is true is right motto of Spier's School
    quousque tandem? For how much longer? From Cicero's first speech In Catilinam to the Roman Senate regarding the conspiracy of Catiline: Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? ("For how much longer, Catiline, will you abuse our patience?").
    Quo Vadimus? Where are we going? Title of the series finale of Aaron Sorkin's TV dramedy Sports Night
    quo vadis? Where are you going? According to Vulgate translation of John 13:36, Saint Peter asked Jesus Domine, quo vadis? ("Lord, where are you going?"). The King James Version has the translation "Lord, whither goest thou?"
    quocunque jeceris stabit whithersoever you throw it, it will stand motto of the Isle of Man
    quod abundat non obstat what is abundant doesn't hinder It is no problem to have too much of something.
    quod cito fit, cito perit what is done quickly, perishes quickly Things done in a hurry are more likely to fail and fail quicker than those done with care.
    quod erat demonstrandum (Q.E.D.) what was to be demonstrated The abbreviation is often written at the bottom of a mathematical proof. Sometimes translated loosely into English as "The Five Ws", W.W.W.W.W., which stands for "Which Was What We Wanted".
    quod erat faciendum (Q.E.F.) which was to be done Or "which was to be constructed". Used in translations of Euclid's Elements when there was nothing to prove, but there was something being constructed, for example a triangle with the same size as a given line.
    quod est (q.e.) which is
    quod est necessarium est licitum what is necessary is lawful
    quod gratis asseritur, gratis negatur what is asserted without reason may be denied without reason If no grounds have been given for an assertion, then there are no grounds needed to reject it.
    quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi what is permitted to Jupiter is not permitted to an ox If an important person does something, it does not necessarily mean that everyone can do it (cf. double standard). Iovi (also commonly rendered Jovi) is the dative form of Iuppiter ("Jupiter" or "Jove"), the chief god of the Romans.
    quod me nutrit me destruit what nourishes me destroys me Thought to have originated with Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe. Generally interpreted to mean that that which motivates or drives a person can consume him or her from within. This phrase has become a popular slogan or motto for pro-ana websites, anorexics and bulimics.
    quod natura non dat Salmantica non praestat what nature does not give, Salamanca does not provide Refers to the Spanish University of Salamanca, meaning that education cannot substitute the lack of brains.
    quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis did A well-known satirical lampoon left attached to the ancient "speaking" statue of Pasquino on a corner of the Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy. [107] Through a sharp pun the writer criticizes Pope Urban VIII, of the Barberini family, who reused stones and decorations from ancient buildings to build new ones, thus wrecking classical constructions that even the barbarians had not touched.
    quod periit, periit What is gone is gone What has happened has happened and it cannot be changed, thus we should look forward into the future instead of being pulled by the past.
    quod scripsi, scripsi What I have written I have written. Pilate to the chief priests (John 19:22)
    quod supplantandum, prius bene sciendum Whatever you hope to supplant, you will first know thoroughly i.e. "You must thoroughly understand that which you hope to supplant". A caution against following a doctrine of Naive Analogy when attempting to formulate a scientific hypothesis.
    quod vide (q.v.) which see Used after a term, phrase, or topic that should be looked up elsewhere in the current document, book, etc. For more than one term or phrase, the plural is quae vide (qq.v.).
    Quodcumque dixerit vobis, facite. Whatever He tells you, that you shall do. More colloquially: "Do whatever He [Jesus] tells you to do." Instructions of Mary to the servants at the Wedding at Cana. (John 2:5). Also the motto of East Catholic High School.
    quomodo vales How are you?
    quorum of whom the number of members whose presence is required under the rules to make any given meeting constitutional
    quos amor verus tenuit tenebit Those whom true love has held, it will go on holding Seneca
    quot capita tot sensus as many heads, so many perceptions "There are as many opinions as there are heads" – Terence
    quot homines tot sententiae as many men, so many opinions Or "there are as many opinions as there are people", "how many people, so many opinions"
    Latin Translation Notes
    radix malorum est cupiditas the root of evils is desire Or "greed is the root of all evil". Theme of "The Pardoner's Tale" from The Canterbury Tales.
    rara avis (rarissima avis) rare bird (very rare bird) An extraordinary or unusual thing. From Juvenal's Satires VI: rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cygno ("a rare bird in the lands, and very like a black swan").
    rari nantes in gurgite vasto Rare survivors in the immense sea Virgil, Aeneid, I, 118
    ratio decidendi reasoning for the decision The legal, moral, political, and social principles used by a court to compose a judgment's rationale.
    ratio legis reasoning of law A law's foundation or basis.
    ratione personae by reason of his/her person Also "jurisdiction ratione personae" the personal reach of the courts jurisdiction. [108]
    ratione soli by account of the ground Or "according to the soil". Assigning property rights to a thing based on its presence on a landowner's property.
    ratum et consummatum confirmed and completed in Canon law, a consummated marriage
    ratum tantum confirmed only in Canon law, a confirmed but unconsummated marriage (which can be dissolved super rato)
    re [in] the matter of More literally, "by the thing". From the ablative of res ("thing" or "circumstance"). It is a common misconception that the "Re:" in correspondence is an abbreviation for regarding or reply this is not the case for traditional letters. However, when used in an e-mail subject, there is evidence that it functions as an abbreviation of regarding rather than the Latin word for thing. The use of Latin re, in the sense of "about", "concerning", is English usage.
    rebus sic stantibus with matters standing thus The doctrine that treaty obligations hold only as long as the fundamental conditions and expectations that existed at the time of their creation hold.
    recte et fortiter Upright and Strong Motto of Homebush Boys High School
    recte et fideliter Upright and Faithful Also "just and faithful" and "accurately and faithfully". Motto of Ruyton Girls' School
    reductio ad absurdum leading back to the absurd A common debate technique, and a method of proof in mathematics and philosophy, that proves the thesis by showing that its opposite is absurd or logically untenable. In general usage outside mathematics and philosophy, a reductio ad absurdum is a tactic in which the logic of an argument is challenged by reducing the concept to its most absurd extreme. Translated from Aristotle's "ἡ εις άτοπον απαγωγη" (hi eis atopon apagogi, "reduction to the impossible").
    reductio ad Hitlerum leading back to Hitler A term coined by German-American political philosopher Leo Strauss to humorously describe a fallacious argument that compares an opponent's views to those held by Adolf Hitler or the Nazi Party. Derived from reductio ad absurdum.
    reductio ad infinitum leading back to the infinite An argument that creates an infinite series of causes that does not seem to have a beginning. As a fallacy, it rests upon Aristotle's notion that all things must have a cause, but that all series of causes must have a sufficient cause, that is, an unmoved mover. An argument which does not seem to have such a beginning becomes difficult to imagine. If it can be established, separately, that the chain must have a start, then a reductio ad infinitum is a valid refutation technique.
    reformatio in peius change to worse A decision from a court of appeal is amended to a worse one. With certain exceptions, this is prohibited at the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office by case law.
    regem ego comitem me comes regem you made me a Count, I will make you a King Motto of the Forbin family [fr]
    reginam occidere From "Reginam occidere nolite timere bonum est si omnes consentiunt ego non contradico", a sentence whose meaning is highly dependent on punctuation: either the speaker wishes a queen killed or not. [109] Written by John of Merania, bishop of Esztergom, to Hungarian nobles planning the assassination of Gertrude of Merania. The queen was assassinated as the plotters saw the bishop's message as an encouragement.
    regnat populus the people rule State motto of Arkansas, adopted in 1907. Originally rendered in 1864 in the plural, regnant populi ("the peoples rule"), but subsequently changed to the singular.
    Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary Former motto of Hungary.
    regressus ad uterum return to the womb Concept used in psychoanalysis by Sándor Ferenczi and the Budapest School.
    rem acu tetigisti You have touched the point with a needle i.e., "You have hit the nail on the head"
    renovatio urbis urban renewal a period of city planning and architectural updating in rennaissance Italy, i.e. the vast architectural programme begun under Doge Andrea Gritti in Venice [110]
    repetita iuvant repeating does good Lit: "Repeated things help". Usually said as a jocular remark to defend the speaker's (or writer's) choice to repeat some important piece of information to ensure reception by the audience.
    repetitio est mater studiorum repetition is the mother of study/learning
    requiem aeternam eternal rest
    requiescat in pace (R.I.P.) let him/her rest in peace Or "may he/she rest in peace". A benediction for the dead. Often inscribed on tombstones or other grave markers. "RIP" is commonly mistranslated as "Rest In Peace", though the two mean essentially the same thing.
    rerum cognoscere causas to learn the causes of things Motto of the University of Sheffield, the University of Guelph, and London School of Economics.
    res firma mitescere nescit a firm resolve does not know how to weaken Used in the 1985 film American Flyers where it is colloquially translated as "once you got it up, keep it up".
    res gestae things done A phrase used in law representing the belief that certain statements are made naturally, spontaneously and without deliberation during the course of an event, they leave little room for misunderstanding/misinterpretation upon hearing by someone else ( i.e. by the witness who will later repeat the statement to the court) and thus the courts believe that such statements carry a high degree of credibility.
    res ipsa loquitur the thing speaks for itself A phrase from the common law of torts meaning that negligence can be inferred from the fact that such an accident happened, without proof of exactly how.
    res judicata judged thing A matter which has been decided by a court. Often refers to the legal concept that once a matter has been finally decided by the courts, it cannot be litigated again (cf. non bis in idem and double jeopardy).
    res, non verba "actions speak louder than words", or "deeds, not words" From rēs ("things, facts") the plural of rēs ("a thing, a fact") + nōn ("not") + verba ("words") the plural of verbum ("a word"). Literally meaning "things, not words" or "facts instead of words" but referring to that "actions be used instead of words".
    res nullius nobody's property Goods without an owner. Used for things or beings which belong to nobody and are up for grabs, e.g., uninhabited and uncolonized lands, wandering wild animals, etc. (cf. terra nullius, "no man's land").
    res publica Pertaining to the state or public source of the word republic
    respice adspice prospice look behind, look here, look ahead i.e., "examine the past, the present and future". Motto of CCNY.
    respice finem look back at the end i.e., "have regard for the end" or "consider the end". Generally a memento mori, a warning to remember one's death. Motto of Homerton College, Cambridge, Trinity College, Kandy, Georgetown College in Kentucky, Turnbull High School, Glasgow, and the London Oratory School.
    respondeat superior let the superior respond Regarded as a legal maxim in agency law, referring to the legal liability of the principal with respect to an employee. Whereas a hired independent contractor acting tortiously may not cause the principal to be legally liable, a hired employee acting tortiously will cause the principal (the employer) to be legally liable, even if the employer did nothing wrong.
    restitutio ad (or in) integrum restoration to original condition Principle behind the awarding of damages in common law negligence claims
    resurgam I shall arise "I shall rise again", expressing Christian faith in resurrection at the Last Day. It appears, inter alia, in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, as the epitaph written on Helen Burns's grave in a poem of Emily Dickinson: Poems (1955) I. 56 (" 'Arcturus' is his other name"), I slew a worm the other day – A 'Savant' passing by Murmured 'Resurgam' – 'Centipede'! 'Oh Lord – how frail are we'! and in a letter of Vincent van Gogh. [111] The OED gives "1662 J. Trapp, Annotations upon the Old and New Testament, in five distinct volumes (London, 1662), vol. I, p. 142: "Howbeit he had hope in his death, and might write Resurgam on his grave" as its earliest attribution in the English corpus.
    retine vim istam, falsa enim dicam, si coges Restrain your strength, for if you compel me I will tell lies An utterance by the Delphic oracle recorded by Eusebius of Caesarea in Praeparatio evangelica, VI-5, translated from the Greek of Porphyry (c.f. E. H. Gifford's translation) [112] and used by William Wordsworth as a subtitle for his ballad "Anecdote for Fathers".
    rex regum fidelum et king even of faithful kings Latin motto that appears on the crest of the Trinity Broadcasting Network of Paul and Jan Crouch.
    rigor mortis stiffness of death The rigidity of corpses when chemical reactions cause the limbs to stiffen about 3–4 hours after death. Other signs of death include drop in body temperature (algor mortis, "cold of death") and discoloration (livor mortis, "bluish color of death").
    risum teneatis, amici? Can you help laughing, friends? An ironic or rueful commentary, appended following a fanciful or unbelievable tale.
    risus abundat in ore stultorum laughter is abundant in the mouth of fools excessive and inappropriate laughter signifies stupidity.
    Roma invicta Unconquered Rome Inspirational motto inscribed on the Statue of Rome.
    Roma locuta, causa finita Rome has spoken, the case is closed In Roman Catholic ecclesiology, doctrinal matters are ultimately decided by the Vatican.
    Romanes eunt domus People called Romans they go the house An intentionally garbled Latin phrase from Monty Python's Life of Brian. Its intended meaning is "Romans, go home!", in Latin Romani ite domum.
    rorate coeli drop down ye heavens a.k.a. The Advent Prose.
    rosam quae meruit ferat She who has earned the rose may bear it Motto from Sweet Briar College
    rus in urbe A countryside in the city Generally used to refer to a haven of peace and quiet within an urban setting, often a garden, but can refer to interior decoration.
    Latin Translation Notes
    saltus in demonstrando leap in explaining a leap in logic, by which a necessary part of an equation is omitted.
    salus in arduis a stronghold (or refuge) in difficulties a Roman Silver Age maxim. Also the school motto of Wellingborough School.
    salus populi suprema lex esto the welfare of the people is to be the highest law From Cicero's De Legibus, book III, part III, sub. VIII. Quoted by John Locke in his Second Treatise, On Civil Government, to describe the proper organization of government. Also the state motto of Missouri.
    salva veritate with truth intact Refers to two expressions that can be interchanged without changing the truth value of the statements in which they occur.
    Salvator Mundi Savior of the World Christian epithet, usually referring to Jesus. The title of paintings by Albrecht Dürer and Leonardo da Vinci.
    salvo errore et omissione (s.e.e.o.) save for error and omission Used as a reservation on statements of financial accounts. Often now given in English "errors and omissions excluded" or "e&oe".
    salvo honoris titulo (SHT) save for title of honor Addressing oneself to someone whose title is unknown.
    Sancta Sedes Holy Chair literally, "holy seat". Refers to the Papacy or the Holy See.
    sancta simplicitas holy innocence Or "sacred simplicity".
    sancte et sapienter in a holy and wise way Also sancte sapienter (holiness, wisdom), motto of several institutions, notably King's College London
    sanctum sanctorum Holy of Holies referring to a more sacred and/or guarded place, within a lesser guarded, yet also holy location.
    sapere aude dare to know From Horace's Epistularum liber primus, Epistle II, line 40. Made popular in Kant's essay Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment? defining the Age of Enlightenment. The phrase is common usage as a university motto.
    sapiens qui prospicit wise is he who looks ahead Motto of Malvern College, England
    sapienti sat enough for the wise From Plautus. Indicates that something can be understood without any need for explanation, as long as the listener has enough wisdom or common sense. Often extended to dictum sapienti sat est ("enough has been said for the wise", commonly translated as "a word to the wise is enough").
    sapientia et doctrina wisdom and learning Motto of Fordham University, New York. Motto of Hill House School Doncaster, England.
    sapientia et eloquentia wisdom and eloquence One of the mottos of the Ateneo schools in the Philippines. [113]

    Motto of the Minerva Society

    Latin Translation Notes
    tabula gratulatoria congratulatory tablet A list of congratulations.
    tabula rasa scraped tablet Thus, "blank slate". Romans used to write on wax-covered wooden tablets, which were erased by scraping with the flat end of the stylus. John Locke used the term to describe the human mind at birth, before it had acquired any knowledge.
    talis qualis just as such "Such as it is" or "as such".
    taliter qualiter somewhat
    talium Dei regnum for of such (little children) is the kingdom of God from St Mark's gospel 10:14 "talium (parvuli) est enim regnum Dei" similar in St Matthew's gospel 19:14 "talium est enim regnum caelorum" ("for of such is the kingdom of heaven") motto of the Cathedral School, Townsville.
    tanquam ex ungue leonem we know the lion by his claw Said in 1697 by Johann Bernoulli about Isaac Newton's anonymously submitted solution to Bernoulli's challenge regarding the Brachistochrone curve.
    tarde venientibus ossa To the late are left the bones
    Te occidere possunt sed te edere non possunt nefas est They can kill you, but they cannot eat you, it is against the law. The motto of the fictional Enfield Tennis Academy in the David Foster Wallace novel Infinite Jest. Translated in the novel as "They can kill you, but the legalities of eating you are quite a bit dicier".
    technica impendi nationi Technology impulses nations Motto of Technical University of Madrid
    temet nosce know thyself A reference to the Greek γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton), inscribed on the pronaos of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, according to the Greek periegetic writer Pausanias (10.24.1). Rendered also with nosce te ipsum, temet nosce ("thine own self know") appears in The Matrix translated as "know thyself".
    tempora heroica Heroic Age Literally "Heroic Times" refers to the period between the mythological Titanomachy and the (relatively) historical Trojan War.
    tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis the times are changing, and we change in them 16th century variant of two classical lines of Ovid: tempora labuntur ("time labors", Fasti) and omnia mutantur ("everything changes", Metamorphoses). See entry for details.
    tempus edax rerum time, devourer of all things Also "time, that devours all things", literally: "time, gluttonous of things", edax: adjectival form of the verb edo to eat. From Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15, 234-236.
    tempus fugit Time flees.
    Time flies.
    From Virgil's Georgics (Book III, line 284), where it appears as fugit inreparabile tempus. A common sundial motto. See also tempus volat, hora fugit below.
    tempus rerum imperator time, commander of all things "Tempus Rerum Imperator" has been adopted by the Google Web Accelerator project. It is shown in the "About Google Web Accelerator" page. Also, motto of Worshipful Company of Clockmakers.
    tempus vernum spring time Name of song by popular Irish singer Enya
    tempus volat, hora fugit time flies, the hour flees
    tendit in ardua virtus virtue strives for what is difficult Appears in Ovid's Epistulae ex Ponto
    teneo te Africa I hold you, Africa! Suetonius attributes this to Julius Caesar, from when Caesar was on the African coast.
    tentanda via The way must be tried motto for York University
    ter in die (t.i.d.) thrice in a day Medical shorthand for "three times a day".
    terminat hora diem terminat auctor opus. The hour finishes the day the author finishes his work. Phrase concluding Christopher Marlowe's play Doctor Faustus. [124]
    terminus ante quem limit before which In archaeology or history, refers to the date before which an artefact or feature must have been deposited. Used with terminus post quem (limit after which). Similarly, terminus ad quem (limit to which) may also refer to the latest possible date of a non-punctual event (period, era, etc.), while terminus a quo (limit from which) may refer to the earliest such date.
    terra australis incognita unknown southern land First name used to refer to the Australian continent
    terra firma solid earth Often used to refer to the ground
    terra incognita unknown land
    terra nova new land Latin name of Newfoundland (island portion of Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, capital- St. John's), also root of French name of same, Terre-Neuve
    terra nullius land of none That is, no man's land. A neutral or uninhabited area, or a land not under the sovereignty of any recognized political entity.
    terras irradient let them illuminate the lands Or "let them give light to the world". An allusion to Isaiah 6.3: plena est omnis terra gloria eius ("the whole earth is full of his glory"). Sometimes mistranslated as "they will illuminate the lands" based on mistaking irradiare for a future indicative third-conjugation verb, whereas it is actually a present subjunctive first-conjugation verb. Motto of Amherst College the college's original mission was to educate young men to serve God.
    tertium non datur no third (possibility) is given A logical axiom that a claim is either true or false, with no third option.
    tertium quid a third something 1. Something that cannot be classified into either of two groups considered exhaustive an intermediate thing or factor. 2. A third person or thing of indeterminate character.
    testis unus, testis nullus one witness is not a witness A law principle expressing that a single witness is not enough to corroborate a story.
    textus receptus received text
    Tibi cordi immaculato concredimus nos ac consecramus We consecrate to your immaculate heart and entrust to you (Mary) for safekeeping The inscription found on top of the central door of the Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, otherwise known as the Manila Cathedral in the Philippines
    timeo Danaos et dona ferentes I fear Greeks even if they bring gifts Danaos being a term for the Greeks. In Virgil's Aeneid, II, 49, the phrase is said by Laocoön when warning his fellow Trojans against accepting the Trojan Horse. The full original quote is quidquid id est timeo Danaos et dona ferentis, quidquid id est meaning "whatever it is" and ferentis being an archaic form of ferentes. Commonly mistranslated "Beware of Greeks bearing gifts".
    timidi mater non flet A coward's mother does not weep A proverb from Cornelius Nepos's Vita of Thrasybulus: praeceptum illud omnium in animis esse debet, nihil in bello oportere contemni, neque sine causa dici matrem timidi flere non solere (that old precept has to be held by all in our minds: nothing should be condemned in war, and it is for a reason that it is said the mother of a coward does not weep [for her cowardly son]).
    timor mortis conturbat me the fear of death confounds me Refrain originating in the response to the seventh lesson in the Office of the Dead. In the Middle Ages, this service was read each day by clerics. As a refrain, it appears also in other poems and can frequently be found inscribed on tombs.
    toto cælo by whole heaven as far apart as possible utterly.
    totus tuus totally yours Offering one's life in total commitment to another. The motto was adopted by Pope John Paul II to signify his love and servitude to Mary the Mother of Jesus.
    transire benefaciendo to travel along while doing good Literally "beneficial passage." Mentioned in "The Seamy Side of History" (L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine, 1848), part of La Comédie humaine, by Honoré de Balzac, and Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne.
    translatio imperii transfer of rule Used to express the belief in the transfer of imperial authority from the Roman Empire of antiquity to the Medieval Holy Roman Empire.
    tres faciunt collegium three makes company It takes three to have a valid group three is the minimum number of members for an organization or a corporation.
    treuga Dei Truce of God A decree by the medieval Church that all feuds should be cancelled during the Sabbath—effectively from Wednesday or Thursday night until Monday. See also Peace and Truce of God.
    tria juncta in uno Three joined in one Motto of the Order of the Bath
    Triste est omne animal post coitum, præter mulierem gallumque Every animal is sad after coitus except the human female and the rooster
    tu autem Domine miserere nobis But Thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us Phrase said at the end of biblical readings in the liturgy of the medieval church. Also used in brief, "tu autem", as a memento mori epitaph.
    tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor Motto of the Association of Canadian Knights of the Sovereign and Military Order of Malta. [125]
    tu fui ego eris I was you you will be me Thus, "what you are, I was what I am, you will be.". A memento mori gravestone inscription to remind the reader that death is unavoidable (cf. sum quod eris).
    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito you should not give in to evils, but proceed ever more boldly against them From Virgil, Aeneid, 6, 95. "Ne cede malis" is the motto of The Bronx.
    tu quoque you too The logical fallacy of attempting to defend one's position merely by pointing out the same weakness in one's opponent.
    tu stultus es you are stupid Motto for the satirical news organization, The Onion
    tuebor I will protect Found on the Great Seal on the flag of the state of Michigan.
    tunica propior est pallio A tunic is closer [to the body] than a cloak From Plautus' Trinummus 1154. Equivalent to "blood is thicker than water" in modern English.
    turris fortis mihi Deus God is my strong tower Motto of the Kelly Clan
    tutum te robore reddam I will give you safety by strength Motto of the Clan Crawford
    tuum est It's up to you Motto of the University of British Columbia
    Latin Translation Notes
    uberrima fides most abundant faith Or "utmost good faith" (cf. bona fide). A legal maxim of insurance contracts requiring all parties to deal in good faith.
    ubertas et fidelitas fertility and faithfulness Motto of Tasmania.
    ubi amor, ibi dolor where [there is] love, there [is] pain
    ubi bene, ibi patria where [it is] well, there [is] the fatherland Or "Home is where it's good" see also ubi panis ibi patria.
    ubi caritas et amor, Deus ibi est where there is charity and love, God is there
    ubi dubium, ibi libertas where [there is] doubt, there [is] freedom Anonymous proverb.
    ubi jus, ibi remedium Where [there is] a right, there [is] a remedy
    ubi mel, ibi apes where [there is] honey, there [are] bees Similar to "you catch more bees with honey than with vinegar"—treat people nicely and they will treat you nicely in return.
    ubi libertas. ibi patria where [there is] liberty, there [is] the fatherland Or "where there is liberty, there is my country". Patriotic motto.
    ubi nihil vales, ibi nihil velis where you are worth nothing, there you will wish for nothing From the writings of the Flemish philosopher Arnold Geulincx also quoted by Samuel Beckett in his first published novel, Murphy.
    ubi non accusator, ibi non iudex where [there is] no accuser, there [is] no judge Thus, there can be no judgment or case if no one charges a defendant with a crime. The phrase is sometimes parodied as "where there are no police, there is no speed limit".
    ubi panis ibi patria where there is bread, there is my country
    ubi pus, ibi evacua where there is pus, there evacuate it
    ubi, re vera when, in a true thing Or "whereas, in reality. " Also rendered ubi, revera ("when, in fact" or "when, actually").
    ubi societas, ibi ius if there's a society, law will be there By Aristotle.
    ubi solitudinem faciunt pacem appellant They make a desert and call it peace from a speech by Calgacus reported/constructed by Tacitus, Agricola, ch. 30.
    ubi sunt? where are they? Nostalgic theme of poems yearning for days gone by. From the line ubi sunt, qui ante nos fuerunt? ("Where are they, those who have gone before us?").
    ubique, quo fas et gloria ducunt everywhere, where right and glory leads Motto of the Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery and most other Engineer or Artillery corps within the armies of the British Commonwealth (for example, the Royal Australian Engineers, Royal Canadian Engineers, Royal New Zealand Engineers, Royal Canadian Artillery, Royal Australian Artillery, Royal New Zealand Artillery). Interunit rivalry often leads to the sarcastic translation of ubique to mean all over the place in a derogative sense.

    Motto of the American Council on Foreign Relations, where the translation of ubique is often given as omnipresent, with the implication of pervasive hidden influence. [126]

    1. ^ Assertions, such as those by Bryan A. Garner in Garner's Modern English Usage, [41] that "eg" and "ie" style versus "e.g.," and "i.e.," style are two poles of British versus American usage are not borne out by major style guides and usage dictionaries, which demonstrate wide variation. To the extent anything approaching a consistent general conflict can be identified, it is between American and British news companies' different approaches to the balance between clarity and expediency, without complete agreement on either side of the Atlantic, and with little evidence of effects outside journalism circles, e.g. in book publishing or academic journals.

    There is no consistent British style. For example, The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e." with points (periods) [42] Fowler's Modern English Usage takes the same approach, [43] and its newest edition is especially emphatic about the points being retained. [44] The Oxford Guide to Style (also republished in Oxford Style Manual and separately as New Hart's Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e." [45] the examples it provides are of the short and simple variety that often see the comma dropped in American usage as well. None of those works prescribe specifically for or against a comma following these abbreviations, leaving it to writers' own judgment.

    Some specific publishers, primarily in news journalism, drop one or both forms of punctuation as a matter of house style. They seem more frequently to be British than American (perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook being treated as a de facto standard across most American newspapers, without a UK counterpart). For example, The Guardian uses "eg" and "ie" with no punctuation, [46] while The Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with commas and without points, [47] as does The Times of London. [48] A 2014 revision to New Hart's Rules states that it is now "Oxford style" to not use a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which retain the points), "to avoid double punctuation". [49] This is a rationale it does not apply to anything else, and Oxford University Press has not consistently imposed this style on its publications that post-date 2014, including Garner's Modern English Usage.

    By way of US comparison, The New York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.", without a rule about a following comma – like Oxford usage in actual practice. [50] The Chicago Manual of Style requires "e.g.," and "i.e.,". [51] The AP Stylebook preserves both types of punctuation for these abbreviations. [52]

    "British" and "American" are not accurate as stand-ins for Commonwealth and North American English more broadly actual practice varies even among national publishers. The Australian government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers preserves the points in the abbreviations, but eschews the comma after them (it similarly drops the title's serial comma before "and", which most UK and many US publishers would retain). [53] Editing Canadian English by the Editors' Association of Canada uses the periods and the comma [54] so does A Canadian Writer's Reference. [55] The government publication The Canadian Style uses the periods but not the comma. [56]

    Style guides are generally in agreement that both abbreviations are preceded by a comma or used inside a parenthetical construction, and are best confined to the latter and to footnotes and tables, rather than used in running prose.