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The UC Davis BIS2A Team Biology Content and Attributions - Biology

The UC Davis BIS2A Team Biology Content and Attributions - Biology


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Content authored by the BIS2A Team at UC Davis, from which much of the BIS2A reading material is drawn, is either heavily edited material originally drawn from the OpenStax "Biology" textbook or original material created by members of the BIS2A Team. Student feedback is used to continuously improve the quality of the materials.

The BIS2A Team at UC Davis

The current set of modules assembled for BIS2A have been prepared, curated, and/or edited by the following group of contributors (listed in no particular order):

  • Erin Easlon, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Marc T. Facciotti, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Mitchell Singer, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Michele Igo, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Christopher Pagliarulo, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Erin Becker, PhD - University of California, Davis
  • Maryna Imas - University of California, Davis
  • We would like to recognize the contributions of former BIS2A students who have provided valuable feedback on the reading assignments.

Historical Contributors to Content

Some of the content in this readings created by the BIS2A Team at UC Davis is drawn from material written by the authors of the original OpenStax "Biology" text. We are grateful for their important contributions and recognize them them by name below.

Previous Senior Contributors

Yael Avissar Rhode Island College Cell Biology
Jung Choi Georgia Institute of Technology Genetics
Jean DeSaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evolution
Vladimir Jurukovski Suffolk County Community College Animal Physiology
Robert Wise University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh Plant Biology
Connie Rye East Mississippi Community College General Content Lead

Legacy Faculty Contributors and Reviewers

Julie Adams Aurora University
Summer Allen Brown University
James Bader Case Western Reserve University
David Bailey St. Norbert College
Mark Belk Brigham Young University
Nancy Boury Iowa State University
Lisa Bonneau Metropolitan Community College - Blue River
Graciela Brelles-Marino California State University Pomona
Mark Browning Purdue University
Sue Chaplin University of St. Thomas
George Cline Jacksonville State University
Deb Cook Georgia Gwinnett College
Diane Day Clayton State University
Frank Dirrigl The University of Texas - Pan American
Waneene Dorsey Grambling State University
Nick Downey University of Wisconsin La Crosse
Rick Duhrkopf Baylor University
Kristy Duran Adams State University
Stan Eisen Christian Brothers University
Brent Ewers University of Wyoming
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology
Michael Fine Virginia Commonwealth University
Linda Flora Delaware County Community College
Thomas Freeland Walsh University
David Grisé Texas A & M University - Corpus Christi
Andrea Hazard SUNY Cortland
Michael Hedrick University of North Texas
Linda Hensel Mercer University
Mark Kopeny University of Virginia
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Grace Lasker Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Walden University
Sandy Latourelle SUNY Plattsburgh
Theo Light Shippensburg University
Clark Lindgren Grinnell College
James Malcolm University of Redlands
Mark Meade Jacksonville State University
Richard Merritt Houston Community College
James Mickle North Carolina State University
Jasleen Mishra Houston Community College
Dudley Moon Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Jonas Okeagu Fayetteville State University
Diana Oliveras University of Colorado Boulder
John Peters College of Charleston
Joel Piperberg Millersville University
Johanna Porter-Kelley Winston-Salem State university
Robyn Puffenbarger Bridgewater College
Dennis Revie California Lutheran University
Ann Rushing Baylor University
Sangha Saha City College of Chicago
Edward Saiff Ramapo College of New Jersey
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Robert Sizemore Alcorn State University
Marc Smith Sinclair Community College
Frederick Spiegel University of Arkansas
Frederick Sproull La Roche College
Bob Sullivan Marist College
Mark Sutherland Hendrix College
Toure Thompson Alabama A&M University
Scott Thomson University of Wisconsin - Parkside
Allison van de Meene University of Melbourne
Mary White Southeastern Louisiana University
Steven Wilt Bellarmine University
James Wise Hampton University
Renna Wolfe
Virginia Young Mercer University
Leslie Zeman University of Washington
Daniel Zurek Pittsburg State University
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.


The Summer Institute on Teaching and Technology -- September 11th in 115 Hutchison!

Remarks from SITT Chair on use of technology for improving teaching and learning, some brief updates on programs offered: October Online/Hybrid Showcase, DOLCE, FLIP, Faculty Panels, AggieVideo, Aggie e-Learning Studio, etc., and where we stand in the LMS transition.

Student-Centered Learning Strategies & Lightning Presentations (Part A)

Introduction to Activity: An interactive workshop that discusses and demonstrates some student-centered and active learning strategies. Ask them to brainstorm elements of student centered learning for discussion and reflection. Break the room up into groups, asking groups to focus on particular elements as they are listening to lightning presentations.

Student-Centered Learning Strategies & Lightning Presentations (Part B)

4-5 Lightning Presentations

Student-Centered Learning Strategies & Lightning Presentations (Part C)

Discussion: Discuss particular assigned elements in small groups, in particular noting how assigned element(s) were featured in the lightning presentations.

Student-Centered Learning Strategies & Lightning Presentations (Part D)

4-5 More Lightning Presentations

Student-Centered Learning Strategies & Lightning Presentations (Part E)

Discussion: Wrap Up small group discussion on elements, again noting how their element(s) were featured in lighting presentations. Andy will bring groups back together around 10:55-11 and ask groups to report out, facilitating a larger discussion with everyone in the room.

More coffee, etc. “The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause.” Mark Twain

Using Data to Improve Teaching, Learning, and Assessment at UC Davis

We will be discussing the value of using data to inform and drive the continuous improvement of curriculum, instruction, and assessment at UC Davis. We will focus specifically on our collaborations with BIS2A and Chem2A faculty / instructors to integrate student-centered instruction into lecture sections and associated discussions and the positive outcomes that have resulted.

Marco Molinaro, Chris Pagliarulo

Dos Coyotes Burritos and water, courtesy of Academic Technology Services

Teachnologies (lunch continues)

Voted on by SITT participants, the tools to be covered will be revealed at the presentation.

Dan Comins, Andy Jones, Steve Faith, Paul Salitsky, Cheryl Diermyer

Digital Devices and Distractions: Dealing with Disruptive Technologies During Class

Technology can enhance teaching and learning, but it can also provide a tempting distraction to students during class. This workshop will address how to manage student use of technology during class to create an effective student-centered learning environment. Participants will consider reasons students turn to distracting technologies in class, examine different strategies for dealing with distracting technologies and evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each, and determine which strategy best aligns with their teaching style and instructional goals.

Personal Response Systems

This session will allow participants to familiarize themselves with the i>clicker line of products that are supported by IET/ATS. We will review the following:

1. The legacy, hand-held clicker system.

2. The newer REEF polling system, which incorporates the older, hand-held technology.

3. Integrations with SmartSite.

4. The use (and best uses) of clickers. We will provide hand-held devices, or you can install the REEF app on your iOS or Android device.

Web 2.0 Tools to Enhance Student Engagement

Learn about and try out exciting (and mostly free!) tools available to enhance student-centered learning in the modern, connected classroom. This is an active and participatory discussion of popular web 2.0 tools that are being used both at UC Davis and across the UC system in blended, hybrid, and fully online classes. We’ll discuss identifying your pedagogical goal and how to sort through the myriad of tool options to find the perfect tool to fit your needs, as well as considerations for accessibility and mobility.

Active Learning in a Large Enrollment Course

The BIS 2A (Introduction to Biology) Active Learning Team will discuss their experience converting from a lecture format to an active learning format in a large enrollment course. This session will feature a panel discussion of the practical aspects of developing an active learning strategy, some of the challenges we faced on the UC Davis campus, a demonstration of active learning practices, and plenty of time for questions.

Marc Facciotti, Michele Igo, Mitch Singer, Erin Easlon, Chris Pagliarulo, Erin Becker

Flipping the Classroom: Inversion with Intention

The “flipped” classroom is a pedagogical approach that inverts the traditional use of class time. Rather than reviewing content, class time can then be used for learner-centered activities.

This session will provide participants with a quick start guide and detail emergent best practices to consider for those who frequently “flip” or those embarking on their first “flip”. Examples from several disciplines and strategies for designing and managing small and large “flipped” classrooms will be shared. This session welcomes instructors who have flipped, experimented with flipping, or are just curious about the flip to attend the session and join the conversation.

(with an optional tour of eLearning Studio)

For people who are interested in employing student-centered learning strategies but don’t know where to begin, this is an opportunity to connect with instructional designers, faculty support staff, and educational specialists to get some ideas.

Dan Comins, Cara Harwood Theisen, Andy Jones, Cheryl Diermyer, Steve Faith

Closing Remarks and Debrief

Finally, for those that make it the whole day, we will have a few closing remarks from ATS Director David Levin and Andy will lead a final conversation around topics presented at SITT 2015 before we all head out and enjoy the weekend.


Contributors and Attributions

Bedoić, Robert, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Both, A.J, Rutgers University, USA

Calvet, Salvador, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

Capareda, Sergio, Texas A&M University, USA

Castell-Perez, M. Elena, Texas A&M University, USA

Ćosić, Boris, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Costantino, Andrea, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Duić, Neven, University of Zagreb, Croatia

El Mashad, Hamed, University of California&mdashDavis, USA, Mansoura University, Egypt

Fabrizio, Enrico, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Feng, Yao-Ze, Huazhong Agricultural University, China

Gates, Richard, Iowa State University, USA

Gorretta, Nathalie, University of Montpellier, France

Gowen, Aoife A, University College Dublin, Ireland

Hassouna, Mélynda, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, France

Hayes, Enda, University of the West of England, UK

He, Brian, University of Idaho, USA

Hutchinson, Stacy L, Kansas State University, USA

Krometis, Leigh-Anne H, Virginia Tech, USA

Moreira, Rosana G, Texas A&M University, USA

Morris, Scott A, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Nuñez, Helena, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Chile

Oberti, Roberto, University of Milano, Italy

Pryor, Scott, North Dakota State University, USA

Puk&scaronec, Tomislav, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Qiu, Guangjun, South China Agricultural University, China

Queiroz, Daniel M, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Brazil

Ramírez, Cristian, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Chile

Rovira-Más, Francisco, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

Saibandith, Bandhita, Kasetsart University, Thailand

Saiz-Rubio, Verónica, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

Schrade, Sabine, Agroscope, Switzerland

Schueller, John K, University of Florida, USA

Schulze Lammers, Peter, University of Bonn, Germany

Shelford, Timothy J, Cornell University, USA

Shi, Yeyin, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

Simpson, Ricardo, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Chile

Sokhansanj, Shahab, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Stombaugh, Tim, University of Kentucky, USA

Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana, Natural Resources Institute, Finland


LAURELS: Presenting BioSci’s Top Teachers

The College of Biological Sciences gave two Faculty Teaching Awards for 2016-17, honoring Luca Comai, professor of plant biology, and Michele Igo, professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, for excellence in teaching through enthusiasm and effectiveness of instruction, application of technology and innovation in the classroom, and mentorship and motivation of students.

The college recently posted a news story on the recipients. Excerpts:

“Lauded for his artistic creativity, Comai is known to frequently draw cartoon models on classroom whiteboards. These illustrations give life to critical concepts being introduced to students and provide engaging visuals to aid classroom instruction.”

“By adding active learning techniques to the BIS 2A lectures, such as case studies, problem-solving scenarios, and collaborative, online assignments, Igo’s goal is to encourage students’ critical-thinking abilities and to help them apply course material to new situations. The inclusion of open-ended questions and time for students to interact in lectures gives students the opportunity to apply and reinforce the concepts as they are learned.”

Alexandra Navrotsky, distinguished professor of ceramic, earth and environmental materials chemistry, has been elected an academician of the World Academy of Ceramics. It confers such status (also known as professional membership) in recognition of “international noteworthy contribution to the advancement of ceramics.”

Navrotsky joined the UC Davis faculty in 1997 and has held the Edward Roessler Chair in Mathematical and Physical Sciences since 2001. She is the director of Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture and Technology, or NEAT, an organized research unit and the Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory.

Her research at this time focuses on natural and synthetic nanomaterials, including natural zeolites (porous crystalline aluminosilicates) and zeolitelike structures important in the chemical industry for commercial glasses and ceramics, and for refining petroleum.

Two faculty members and two graduate students in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics are the recipients of awards and a scholarship from the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. It announced the honors during its annual meeting, held this year in Chicago, July 30-Aug. 1.

Ed Taylor, professor, and his former student Diane Charlton received honorable mention for Quality of Research Discovery, stemming from their study of the agricultural labor supply from rural Mexico. This is the United States’ main source of hired farmworkers, and Taylor and Charlton found that the supply is decreasing at a rate of approximately 150,000 workers per year.

The researchers published their study, “A Declining Farm Workforce: Analysis of Panel Data from Rural Mexico,” in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics (a publication of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in June 2016. Charlton was a Ph.D. candidate at the time of the study she subsequently earned her doctorate and is now an assistant professor of agricultural economics and economics at Montana State University.

Julian Alston and two co-authors received two awards for “U.S. Obesity and Its Social Costs” — judged the most outstanding article in the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association’s other journal, Applied Economic Perspectives & Policy, and best paper out of the association’s Food Safety and Nutrition Section.

Alston is a distinguished professor, director of the Robert Mondavi Institute Center for Wine Economics, and a member of the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics. He shared the awards with Joanna MacEwan, a research economist with Precision Health Economics and Abigail Okrent, an economist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service.

Christian Lovell, working toward a Master of Science degree in agricultural and resource economics, won a scholarship from the Anthony Grano Special Purpose Fund, which supports academically successful, highly motivated students in agricultural economics or a closely related discipline with an interest in agricultural policy and the policy formation process.

Susan Ustin has been named a fellow of the American Geophysical Union. It confers fellow status on members who have made exceptional contributions to Earth and space sciences.

Ustin is a professor of environmental and resource sciences in the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, and the associate director of research at the John Muir Institute of the Environment.

AGU fellows help advise, upon request, government agencies and other organizations regarding Earth and space sciences topics.

The Hispanic National Bar Foundation recently presented its Academic Leadership Award to Kevin R. Johnson, dean of the School of Law. The award honors excellence in the legal profession and commitment to diversity and inclusion.

Johnson, the Mabie-Apallas Professor of Public Interest Law and Chicana/o Studies, is an internationally recognized scholar in the fields of immigration law and policy, refugee law and civil rights.


Microbiologist Michele Igo Named Associate Dean of Undergraduate Academic Programs

For seven years, Professor Michele Igo has taught BIS 2A, an undergraduate introductory course for students in the College of Biological Sciences. With as many as 500 students in each class, it is Igo’s task to provide new students with a foundation in modern biology.

But how can professors accurately measure comprehension of course materials with so many students? Like many professors, Igo wants her students to critically engage with course materials rather than just regurgitate definitions and theories. But sometimes, students face barriers when it comes to engagement. In education, one size doesn’t fit all.

Igo, who holds an appointment in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, and her colleagues are working to improve the learning environment at UC Davis, with projects focused on developing software to promote student engagement and to create a more inclusive educational environment.

Igo’s educational research makes her a natural fit for college leadership, and recently, she was named associate dean of undergraduate academic programs for the College of Biological Sciences, a four-year appointment.

“Dr. Igo has provided meaningful research experiences and mentorship for many life sciences students, and she has been a leader in our educational programs,” said College of Biological Sciences Dean Mark Winey. “We’re excited to have her join the ranks of the college leadership and look forward to her contributions in this the position.”

Igo replaced Susan Keen, Department of Evolution and Ecology, who will continue lecturing and conducting her own educational research at UC Davis.

“I will miss the chance to interact, as part of the job, with so many faculty and staff colleagues in the college and across the campus,” said Keen. “Revising policies and processes in ways that improve student academic life is not always easy, but it is very satisfying. It was also great to meet so many students and to learn about their lives, ambitions and career paths.”

“One thing I’ve always admired about Susan is the students come first for her,” said Igo. “And I agree with that ideology.”

Professors Luca Comai and Michele Igo pose by a BIS 2A classroom mural. David Slipher/UC Davis

From bacteria to better classroom instruction

Igo pivoted to educational research a few years ago following her investigation of Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium that causes Pierce’s Disease of Grapevines . The bacteria is transferred to grapevines via the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a large leafhopper insect. In the early 2000s, when Igo joined a team of scientists at UC Davis to combat the disease, more than 1,100 acres of California grapevines were already infested. Igo’s research focused on identifying proteins on the bacterial cell’s surface and to develop strategies to interfere with the bacterium’s ability to invade susceptible host plants.

X. fastidiosa is responsible for a number of diseases in crops important to the California agricultural economy, including almonds and grapes” said Igo. “It has also been identified as the causative agent of a fatal disease of citrus and coffee in South America and of olives in Italy. Understanding how this pathogen evolves to infect new plant species is critical if we are to prevent new diseases from appearing in California.”

In addition to her scientific research, Igo has had a long-standing interest in developing new methods for increasing students’ cognitive engagement in the classroom. A major focus of her current educational research involves developing new computational tools that detect the degree to which students engage cognitively and meaningfully with online course materials. This project is a collaboration with Marc Faccioti, an associate professor of biomedical engineering at the UC Davis, Kobi Gal, an associate professor of software an information systems engineering at Ben-Gurion University, and David Krager, a professor and member of the Computer Sciences and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The online course material used for this study is “BIS 2A: Introductory Biology,” which is continuously evolving open access textbook written by the BIS2A instructors. Before each lecture, students are asked to highlight and comment on three areas of an assigned reading assignment. In a small classroom setting, it’s possible for professors to read the comments and evaluate not only whether student comments are correct, but also whether the students are engaging with the content critically and then incorporate their insights into their next lecture.

This is a much more difficult in a larger classroom environment.

The goal of Igo and her colleagues’ current project is to develop an artificial intelligence system that can evaluate the work of students in a large classroom or online setting and interact with individual students as they read course materials. Eventually, the hope is the system will be able to prompt students to engage with content more deeply if they’re only giving surface-level answers.

Igo’s role in the project is to teach the computer how to differentiate between such comments. On top of ensuring that students engage with the material, the researchers hope the AI system will help them identify struggling students earlier in the quarter, so professors and teaching assistants can intervene and help before the first midterm.

Another goal is to use the AI system to identify communications barriers sometimes faced by students who speak English as a second language. This includes constantly evaluating the textbook’s prose and eliminating usages of slang and jargon.

When you’re teaching at the scales we are, particularly in large enrollment courses like BIS 2A, the challenge is figuring out how to help the individual student,” said Igo. “How can we identify what the issues are? Artificial intelligence is an obvious way to go.”


Dr. Scott Oliver and Beatriz Ehlke : Provided insight on certain plasticizers to use as well as assays to perform. Allowed our team to use his glassware with the help of his graduate student, Beatriz Ehlke, in order to perform Soxhlet extraction for ionic liquid and plasticizer testing. Gave our team 2 ionic liquids : diisopropylimidazolium and diisobutylimidazolium to use for our chemical modeling tests and film production.

Dr. Scott Oliver and Jeremy Barnett : Provided insight on assays for crystallinity indexes. With the help of his graduate student Jeremy Barnett, the team had their BC samples and films attained from Dr. Hussein Ajwa X-ray Diffracted to receive graphs and conduct crystallinity calculations.

Dr. Rebecca Braslau : Provided advice on what plasticizers to use for our cellulose-based plastic. Let us use her glassware to perform the Soxhlet extraction in Dr.Oliver’s lab.

Dr. Peter Weiss : Provided insight on the mechanisms of ionic liquids in dissolving biomass, as well as storage for our plasticizer gels. Gave us access to his lab oven for plasticizer testing.

Dr. Doug Hayes : Advised and critiqued current plasticizer integration protocols and provided suggestions for equipment. Gave advice about copolymer selection and integration, specifically inclusion of PHAs.

Dr. Oded Shoseyov : Advised removal of the mRFP from our plasmid due to possible inhibition of the protein from allowing a CBM to attach. This would help us improve on an existing part

Dr. Husein Ajwa : Provided insight into the extensive fumigation protocols all films, even biodegradable, have to pass in order for them to be put out in the fields. Provided information on fumigation and Totally Impermeable Films. Gave a tour of his lab in Gilroy, CA. Showed step by step how fumigation testing is done and gave samples of different films to be able to compare our product to good and bad films out there. His help led us to look into co-polymers as a plasticizing agent, look into the baseline crystallinity we should be achieving, and focus our efforts on making a stretchy bed-mulch film.

Tom Ellis and Joaquin Caro (Imperial College of London) : Discovered the strain and laid the groundwork for our work with K.rhaeticus, which allowed us to directly test bacterial cellulose, they organized the shipment of the strain and multiple plasmids from the Imperial College of London.

Dr. Steven Fennimore : Provided the Cost and Return studies from UC Davis that would help analyze the money growers could save using a biodegradable plastic mulch that is tilled into the ground. Provided further information about fumigation and Totally Impermeable Films.

Dr. Lisa DeVetter : Provided us with American Society of Testing and Materials (ATSM) standards and outlined regulations from the National Organic Program that would help us with testing and assaying our film.

Dr. Steven Fennimore : Provided the Cost and Return studies from UC Davis that would help analyze the money growers could save using a biodegradable plastic mulch that is tilled into the ground. Provided further information about fumigation and Totally Impermeable Films.

Dr. Lisa DeVetter : Provided us with American Society of Testing and Materials (ATSM) standards and outlined regulations from the National Organic Program that would help us with testing and assaying our film.

Dr. Joji Muramoto : Provided insight into organic farming practices and pushed us to pursue a biodegradable plastic mulch that can be used in organic farming.

Dr. Carol Shennan : Provided knowledge on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulation 7 CFR 205.206 which explicitly states that biodegradable films produced from recombinant DNA technologies are prohibited from use in organic farming. Pushed us to combat this policy with the National Organic Standards Board.

Mark Bolda : Explained that the main bed mulch recycling plant in northern california was now closed down, leading more and more growers to bring their bed mulches to the landfill. Moreover, pushed us to discover the breakdown of our plastic mulch to make sure no microplastics would be left in the soil and all products were natural biological compounds that wouldn’t harm the soil or the crops.

Dave Peck : Provided a grower’s point of view of current biodegradable mulches and why they are unpopular. Explained that having a plastic tilled into the ground at the end of the growing season would be ideal to reduce cost of removal labor.


The Basics

  • What is a nurse?
  • "Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, facilitation of healing, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations."
    - American Nursing Association, What is nursing?

Nurses play a variety of critical roles on the healthcare team depending on their education, experience and training. According to the American Nursing Association, a nurse's responsibilities include:
- Performing physical exams and health histories

- Providing health promotion, counseling and education
- Administering medications, wound care, and numerous other personalized interventions
- Interpreting patient information and make critical decisions about needed actions
- Coordinating care, in collaboration with a wide array of healthcare professionals
- Directing and supervising care delivered by other healthcare personnel like LPNs and nurse aides
- Conducting research in support of improved practice and patient outcomes


Nursing is a very diverse health profession, both academically and professionally. There is not one path to becoming a nurse. Asking yourself the following questions may help you navigate the many paths after graduating UC Davis.
- Are you passionate about assisting patients at the bedside?
- Do you see yourself working within a specific department or community?
- Are you interested in collaborating with physicians and other medical professionals to diagnose patients and determine plan of care?

There are two main routes to becoming a nurse.

Here is just one example of how a UC Davis graduate might become a nurse:
1. Obtain a bachelor's degree from UC Davis in something other than nursing.
2. Complete a pre-licensure nursing program.
- Accelerated Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (ABSN): for students who want a Bachelor's of Science in Nursing prepare students to take the NCLEX-RN and become a
Registered Nurse typically 12-18 months
+ ABSN Programs in California (PDF)
+ ABSN Programs in the U.S. (PDF)
- Entry-Level Master's of Science in Nursing (ELMSN): for students who want a graduate degree in nursing typically 2-4 years students complete baccalaureate-level
coursework and take the NCLEX-RN in the first year can also include specialty or Advanced Practice Registered Nursing tracks (may also be called Master's Entry Program in
Nursing)
+  ELMSN/MEPN Programs in California (PDF)
+ ELMSN/MEPN Programs in the U.S. (PDF)
3. Enter workforce as a licensed nurse.
4. Optional: Pursue further education in nursing, including a Master's degree, Post-Master's Certificate Program, or Doctor of Nursing Practice.

Breakdown of Nursing Licenses & Degrees

ABSN. ELMSN. RN. NP. CNA. What do these acronyms mean?
Use this chart to see the different types of nurses and the nursing degrees.

* If you aren't sure what path to take after UC Davis, consider scheduling an appointment with an advisor.

To prepare academically as a pre-nursing student, you'll need to take nursing school prerequisites and coursework to prepare for the TEAS or HESI. School prerequisites and exam prep coursework overlap but are not the same. Exam prep coursework must be done before you take the exam and prioritized over non-exam prerequisites. You can choose any major and apply to nursing school. If you choose a non-science major, you still have to take the science prerequisites required by most schools. Always cross-check your major requirements and the nursing school requirements when choosing classes.

Nursing School Prerequisites Courses to Take at UC DavisMost schools requireGeneral Chemistry CHE 2ABPhysiology with Lab NPB 101/NPB 101L OR NPB 110C/NPB 101LHuman Anatomy with Lab

EXB 106/106L OR CHA 101/101L

PHI 5 OR PHI 15

* Check your major requirements before choosing classes.
**
**Please note if a nursing school requires Nutrition, NUT 10 may or may not fulfill the unit requirement. Students are recommended to take NUT 10 and NUT 11 if they are planning to fulfill the requirement at Davis.

See the ABSN California and Out-of-State and ELMSN California and Out-of-State Prerequisite Charts for sample lists of nursing programs and their requirements.

Note: The above courses are only suggested, not absolute.

***Developmental Psychology (PSC 140) does not satisfy this requirement because it doesn’t cover the entire human lifespan from birth until death. See community college equivalents for HDE 100ABC.

See our community college course charts for Microbiology, and Anatomy & Physiology.

Tips for completing prerequisites

- You can choose any major and apply to nursing school. If you choose a non-science major, you still have to take the science prerequisites. Always cross-check your major requirements and the nursing school requirements when choosing classes.

- HPA recommends that pre-nursing students maintain a minimum GPA of 3.0, although many nursing schools and programs will have GPA averages above this minimum.

- Each nursing school has different prerequisites. Check each school's prerequisites before applying.

- Complete all of your prerequisites courses for a letter grade - DO NOT take any of them P/NP.


ATP Hydrolysis and Synthesis

ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP in the following reaction:

Like most chemical reactions, the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is reversible. The reverse reaction combines ADP + Pi to regenerate ATP from ADP. Since ATP hydrolysis releases energy, ATP synthesis must require an input of free energy.

ADP is combined with a phosphate to form ATP in the following reaction:

The phosphorylation(or condensation of phosphate groups onto AMP) is an endergonic process. By contrast, the hydrolysis of one or two phosphate groups from ATP, a process called dephosphorylation, is exergonic. Why? Let's recall that the terms endergonic and exergonic refer to the sign on the difference in free energy of a reaction between the products and reactants, &DeltaG. In this case we are explicitly assigning direction to the reaction, either in the direction of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of the nucleotide. In the phosphorylation reaction the reactants are the nucleotide and an inorganic phosphate while the products are a phosphorylated nucleotide and WATER. In the dephosphorylation/hydrolysis reaction, the reactants are the phosphorylated nucleotide and WATER while the products are inorganic phosphate and the nucleotide minus one phosphate.

"High-Energy" bonds

What about the term "high-energy bonds" that we so often hear associated with ATP? If there is nothing "special" about the bonds in ATP, why do we always hear the term "high-energy bonds" associated with the molecule? The answer is deceptively simple. In biology the term "high-energy bond" is used to describe an exergonic reaction involving the hydrolysis of the bond in question that results in a "large," negative change in free energy. Remember that this change in free energy does not only have to do with the bond in question but rather the sum of all bond rearrangements in the reaction. What constitutes a large change? It is a rather arbitrary assignment usually associated with an amount of energy associated with the types of anabolic reactions we typically observe in biology. If there is something special about the bonds in ATP, it is not uniquely tied to the free energy of hydrolysis, as there are plenty of other bonds whose hydrolysis results in greater negative differences in free energy.

Figure 2. The free energy of hydrolysis of different types of bonds can be compared to that of the hydrolysis of ATP. Source:http://bio.libretexts.org/Core/Biochemistry/Oxidation_and_Phosphorylation/ATP_and_Oxidative_Phosphorylation/Properties_of_ATP

Table 1. Table of common cellular phosphorylated molecules and their respective free energies of hydrolysis, under physiological conditions.


Introduction

In this chapter, you have been introduced to some of the mechanisms for providing dietary guidance to North Americans. This guidance is based on research demonstrating the biological need for each nutrient currently identified. In the following publication, the authors discuss the effect of the food we eat on the health of the bacteria that live in our gastrointestinal systems. As you read the publication linked below, consider the following questions:

  1. What are your initial thoughts regarding the aim of this publication?
  2. What is the question that the author is trying to answer with this publication?
  3. What methods did the author use to determine an answer to the question?
  4. What sorts of results did the author obtain, and how were those results analyzed?
  5. What types of references does the author use to support the publication?
  6. Do you agree with the conclusions to which the author came regarding an answer to the question?

Fields, F. J., Lejzerowicz , F., Schroeder, D., Ngoi, S. M., Tran, M., McDonald, D., Jiang, L., Chang, J. T., Knight, R., Mayfield, S. (2020). Effects of the microalgae Chlamydomonas on gastrointestinal health. Journal of Functional Foods, 65, 103738. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.103738


3.13: Branches of Nutrition Science

Nutrition Science (or sometimes, Nutritional Science) is a young field of study.

Nutrition Science is an integrative field of study, meaning that it incorporates a number of different disciplines. For instance, nutrients are molecules that have often complex interactions with other molecules and cells in the human body. Biochemistry is the branch of science dedicated to these chemical reactions. The cells of the human body are themselves constructed from nutrient molecules, and cell biology is the branch of science dedicated to understanding these cellular processes. Much of the interest is Nutrition surrounds the effect various foods and dietary practices on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. The pathogenesis of these diseases is rooted in the study of anatomy and physiology. Because the study of Nutrition Science integrates so many other disciplines, students in this course of study may choose a number of paths. In general, however, most students who want to continue onto careers in the field of Nutrition will find themselves in one of the following branches: