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What does hypolithial mean

What does hypolithial mean


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I'm writing a thesis in biology and my supervisor asked me to find literature about beetles living under rocks - specifically she wants me to find something about hypolithial diversity. However Google doesn't even recognize the word 'hypolithial' so I'm kind of stranded without any references on where to start searching.

I know that hypo lithia comes from ancient greek and means below stones, but nobody mentioned it like that in the literature.

Has anybody heard of this term or knows a similar one which I could use for my research?


Google for sublithic or hypolithic.

You'll find lots of things like (https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-642-11274-4_767) with further references and links


Anatomy Does Not Determine Gender, Experts Say

Defining gender as a condition determined strictly by a person’s genitals is based on a notion that doctors and scientists abandoned long ago as oversimplified and often medically meaningless.

Researchers who have studied gender issues and provided health care to people who do not fit the typical M/F pigeonholes said that the Trump administration’s latest plan to define gender goes beyond the limits of scientific knowledge.

“The idea that a person’s sex is determined by their anatomy at birth is not true, and we’ve known that it’s not true for decades,” said Dr. Joshua D. Safer, an endocrinologist and executive director of the Center for Transgender Medicine and Surgery at Mount Sinai Health System in New York. He is also president of the United States Professional Association of Transgender Health.

But exactly what does determine gender identity — a person’s powerful, core knowledge of who they are — is not so clear.

“We know that there is a significant, durable biological underpinning to gender identity,” Dr. Safer said. “What we don’t know are all of the biological factors at play that explain gender identity. As far as we in the mainstream biological-medical community understand it in 2018, it is hard-wired, it is biological, it is not entirely hormonal, and we do not have identified genes, so we cannot specifically say it is genetic.”


borrowed from Latin obligātus, past participle of obligāre "to tie up, restrain by tying, place under a legal or moral constraint" — more at oblige

borrowed from German obligat "necessary, unavoidable," borrowed from Latin obligātus "under an obligation," from past participle of obligāre "to tie up, restrain by tying, place under a legal or moral constraint" — more at oblige

Note: In biological sense apparently adapted from use of German obligat by the mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary (1831-88) in Vergleichende Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen und Bacterien (Leipzig, 1884), p. 382 ff.


Morphology

“The mosasaurs were still experimenting with new ways of feeding, new morphologies, new lifestyles just before that asteroid came down,” Longrich says.

The morphology of the canine was so similar to a mega-size gray wolf that nobody thought to argue with what seemed like a sure thing.

Still, structure and function go hand-in-hand in biology, so it’s reasonable to expect one day neuroscientists will know how specific neuronal morphologies contribute to activity profiles.

In one, rapid diversification in some aspect of body morphology produces a burst of new species at first, and then speciation slows as the available niches fill up.

Keefe recently published a paper in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society on the morphology of 89 species of frogs from every continent except Antarctica.

Recognition of the pneumococcus depends upon its morphology , the fact that it is Gram-staining, and the presence of a capsule.

Functional morphology of three bats: Sumops, Myotis, Macrotus.

Their influence reaches far beyond the proper sphere of phonetics and invades that of morphology , as we shall see.

Although it is as an anatomist that Nehemiah Grew is best known, his grasp of external morphology is perhaps even more remarkable.

We must recollect that the comparative morphology of the ovule (in the wide sense) was not attempted.


Cell Membrane

The cell membrane or plasma membrane is the structure that keeps cytoplasm from spilling out of a cell. This membrane is composed of phospholipids, which form a lipid bilayer that separates the contents of a cell from the extracellular fluid. The lipid bilayer is semi-permeable, meaning that only certain molecules are able to diffuse across the membrane to enter or exit the cell. Extracellular fluid, proteins, lipids, and other molecules may be added to a cell's cytoplasm by endocytosis. In this process, molecules and extracellular fluid are internalized as the membrane turns inward forming a vesicle. The vesicle encloses the fluid and molecules and buds off from the cell membrane forming an endosome. The endosome moves within the cell to deliver its contents to their appropriate destinations. Substances are removed from the cytoplasm by exocytosis. In this process, vesicles budding from Golgi bodies fuse with the cell membrane expelling their contents from the cell. The cell membrane also provides structural support for a cell by serving as a stable platform for the attachment of the cytoskeleton and cell wall (in plants).


Food Chains and Food Webs

Food chains and food webs are diagrams that represent feeding relationships. Essentially, they show who eats whom. In this way, they model how energy and matter move through ecosystems.

Food Chains

A food chain represents a single pathway by which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem. An example is shown in Figure below. Food chains are generally simpler than what really happens in nature. Most organisms consume&mdashand are consumed by&mdashmore than one species.

This food chain includes producers and consumers. How could you add decomposers to the food chain?

Food Webs

A food web represents multiple pathways through which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem. It includes many intersecting food chains. It demonstrates that most organisms eat, and are eaten, by more than one species. Examples are shown in Figures below and below.

Food Web. This food web consists of several different food chains. Which organisms are producers in all of the food chains included in the food web?


Read (biology)

In DNA sequencing, a read is an inferred sequence of base pairs (or base pair probabilities) corresponding to all or part of a single DNA fragment. A typical sequencing experiment involves fragmentation of the genome into millions of molecules, which are size-selected and ligated to adapters. The set of fragments is referred to as a sequencing library, which is sequenced to produce a set of reads. [1]

Sequencing technologies vary in the length of reads produced. Reads of length 20-40 base pairs (bp) are referred to as ultra-short. [2] Typical sequencers produce read lengths in the range of 100-500 bp. [3] However, Pacific Biosciences platforms produce read lengths of approximately 1500 bp. [4] Read length is a factor which can affect the results of biological studies. [5] For example, longer read lengths improve the resolution of de novo genome assembly and detection of structural variants. It is estimated that read lengths greater than 100 kilobases (kb) will be required for routine de novo human genome assembly. [6] Bioinformatic pipelines to analyze sequencing data usually take into account read lengths. [7]


Planes of the Body

There are three main planes that transect, or divide, the human body into sections to make it easier to describe the locations of body parts and movements. They are the sagittal plane, the coronal plane, and the transverse plane. The sagittal plane runs down the center of the body and divides the body into left and right sides. The coronal plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral sides. The transverse plane is at the waist and runs parallel to the ground, dividing the body into cranial and caudal sections.

This diagram shows the three anatomical planes of the body.


What Does Hyperintensity Mean On An Mri Report?

Hyperintensity is a term used in MRI reports to describe how part of an image looks on MRI scan. Most MRIs are in black/white with shades of gray. A hyperintensity is an area that appears lighter in color than the surrounding tissues a hypointensity would be darker in color. When we're talking about hyperintensities as seen on MRI, in the context of MS, we are talking about lesions, most commonly white matter lesions.

MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. There are a variety of MRI sequences or imaging patterns used (ie. T1, T2 or FLAIR) to highlight or suppress different types of tissue so that abnormalities can be detected.

Hyperintensity on a T2 sequence MRI basically means that the brain tissue in that particular spot differs from the rest of the brain. A bright spot, or hyperintensity, on T2 scan is nonspecific by itself and must be interpreted within clinical context (symptoms, why you had the MRI done in the first place, etc). T2 hyperintensities may occur in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, vasculitis (inflammation of the arteries in the brain), lyme disease. It's important to note that any tissue with a high water or protein content will tend to appear very bright on the T2 sequence.

The FLAIR sequence is used to suppress the hyperintense signal produced by water (or cerebrospinal fluid) in the brain. This is especially helpful when looking for lesions around the brain ventricles (which contain cerebrospinal fluid).

You should know: The answer above provides general health information that is not intended to replace medical advice or treatment recommendations from a qualified healthcare professional.


Why you should calculate your carbon footprint

The carbon footprint is a very powerful tool to understand the impact of personal behaviour on global warming. Most people are shocked when they see the amount of CO2 their activities create! If you personally want to contribute to stop global warming, the calculation and constant monitoring of your personal carbon footprint is essential.

In the web, you can find many carbon footprint calculators, which allow to store individual activities like, e.g. travelling by car, train, bus or air plane, fuel consumptions, electricity bills and so on. You can then see the amount of CO2 created for each individual activity. You can do this either in advance and use it as a help for decisions or afterwards to continually sum up your carbon dioxide emissions. Or you can estimate your carbon footprint of all your activities, see for example the carbon footprint calculator of WWF in the UK. An easy to use off-line carbon footprint and primary energy consumption calculator (Excel sheet) is available for free in the download section.

There are graphs available on this site for the CO2 emissions per capita by country (average carbon footprint by country). In the medium- and long term, the carbon footprint must be reduced to less than 600 kg CO2 per year and per person. This is the maximum allowance for a sustainable living .


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